TOURISMOS: An International Multidisciplinary Refereed Journal of Tourism
Volume 11, Number 2, 2016
Creative Commons: BY-NC-ND
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SOLIDARITY ECONOMY AS A COUNTERPOINT TO CLASSICAL ECONOMICS: POSSIBILITIES OF CHANGES
Luzianeide Menezes Teixeira, Tavares, Jean Max,
In the current context of social arrhythmia promoted by the culture of excess, consumerism and individualism the purpose of this article is to discuss the need to promote changes in tourism and society towards a more human development, based on the pillars of the solidarity economy. The article extends discussions on the solidarity economy into the context of classical economics, with new offers and demands that are focused not on capital accumulation only, but on the rights and development of human beings. To achieve this goal, we analyse four key foundations of the solidarity economy - solidarity, social equality, cooperation and sharing. The original contribution of the paper is to present cutting-edge ideas that show a counterpoint to capitalism and consumerism; one that is excluded from global tourism’s contradictory path by a form of production that values social relations, and quality of life in community experiences and community tourism.
DO CRISES IMPEDE THE INTERNATIONAL TOURISTS TRAVEL MOTIVATION
Salehuddin Mohd Zahari, Devyn Daleowen Dusi,
This paper investigates the cause and effect of crises on tourism destination image and the international tourists’ travel motivation. Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) procedures were performed to achieve the research goals. Through series of empirical analyses, some useful insights on the issue investigated were obtained. The findings revealed that there are three types of crises; sustained, an immediate and emerging crisis which affect the image of a tourism destination and subsequently influence the tourist travel motivation. In fact, the immediate and emerging crises, although was found to negatively affecting the image of tourism destination, does not inhibit the international tourists travel motivation. The result of this study shows varying consequences and implications of crises to individual tourist, tourism intermediaries, tourism agencies, government authorities and any parties related to tourism industry.
WE DO MORE THAN WE CAN TELL. PERSPECTIVES OF TACIT KNOWLEDGE TRANSFER IN TOURISM ACCOMMODATION ESTABLISHMENTS
Tacit knowledge is a concept developed in connection with knowledge management research field. It is acknowledged as the cornerstone of competitive advantage; however, merely its possession does not guarantee an edge in fierce competition. Even though tacit knowledge holds a dominative role towards labor efficiency, productivity and innovation, the subject of tacit knowledge acquisition and transfer has been rather unexploited, mostly due to its intrinsic, highly personal and seamlessly bonded to holder’s personality, attributes. The purpose of the article is to contribute to the exploitation of the embedded tacit knowledge of employees in hospitality establishments, a sector where the employment of tacit knowledge has to be extensive and foremost, capitalizing the maximum of personnel competences. Towards this goal, research hypotheses were built and tested, using SEM Methodology. The final outcome of the study revealed that task assignment customized to employees’ personality and emotions is directly and positively correlated with tacit knowledge transfer.
UNDERSTANDING THE ROLE OF SOCIO-DEMOGRAPHIC FACTORS AND VACATION MOTIVES IN VACATIONER’S DECISION MAKING PROCESS: A CASE OF LANGKAWI ISLAND
Lee Heng Wei, Zarul Fitri Zaaba, Mohd Azam Osman, Tarmiji Masron
This study was designed to identify the relative importance vacation motives as perceived by the tourist visiting Langkawi Island, Kedah, Malaysia. In addition, this study also explored the underlying dimensions of the vacation motives and determinants factors. Questionnaires were distributed using convenient sampling utilizing 252 tourists and .were analyzed using SPSS program. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was deployed to determine whether the derived vacation motives and determinants varied among groups of socio-demographic and travelling characteristics. The findings indicated that the social-demographic factors placed a great influence on the perception of tourist towards Langkawi Island. Travel motivations and determinants were found to be significantly different in means when compared across different socio-demographic factors like age and income level. The findings also revealed the important segmentation variables in the context of consumer behavior literature where it became the contributing factors to develop appropriate marketing strategies to attract travelers.
ECONOMIC, SOCIAL, CULTURAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS ON TOURISM DEVELOPMENT OF PASİNLER
Cem Işık, Ali Ada, Ferhat Boztoprak
purpose of this study is to investigate the levels of the local
people’s tourism perception, depending on the present tourism
potential in Pasinler and Erzurum. Also to investigate the ideas and
suggestions of people about the necessities for tourism with an
innovational approach in the district. In accordance with this aim, the
public survey applied to a total of 400 people in 2015. The results
show that the developing tourism activities will be able to increase
the cultural activities in the region, the plateau tourism potential
and thermal tourism of the region that focused on and more tourist can
be entertained by means of making suitable investments concluded as a
result of the public surveys. In addition, the local people explained
that tourism development can change the value and faith conformation of
the people of the region have and can cause a negative effect on the
customs as well. It means, that economic impacts of tourism (F=8.285
and p <0.05) and social impacts of tourism (F=9.762 and p <0.05)
show differences depending on the participants' profession. It was also
observed that the cultural impacts of tourism (F=5.759 and p <0.05)
and environmental impacts of tourism (F=5.906 and p <0.05) show
differences depending on the participants' profession.
WORSHIPING PILGRIMAGE AND RELIGIOUS TOURISM IN GREECE AND CYPRUS DURING ANCIENT TIMES
travel is not a recent activity of modern civilization. It is a
phenomenon, which has existed since ancient times. It has grown over
time and evolved into Religious and Pilgrimage tourism, depending upon
the various changes that were observed in the course of humanity.
Pilgrimage along with the Religious tourism is usually considered the
oldest form of non-economic travel and is one of the most understudied
areas in tourism research. Every year it is estimated that
approximately 240 million people travel to major pilgrimage
destinations around the world both ancient, like Greece and Cyprus, as
well as modern in origin. Increases in spiritually motivated travel in
the modern era, have coincided with the growth of tourism in all eras,
especially after the 19th century, where the development of tourism was
generally based on the leisure time of people and on their movements to
PILGRIMAGE TOURIST’S PERCEPTION TOWARDS SERVICE QUALITY DIMENSIONS OF HOTELS IN KUMBAKONAM- THE TEMPLE CITY OF INDIA.
Service quality is well thought-out to be a decisive accomplishment factor which is one of the outstanding accomplishment features that sway the core competencies of the hotel industry. The Hotel industry in Temple city of the old Cauvery delta Kumbakonam has been escalating in recent years. In spite of the growth, the industry also countenances problems with regard to service quality. The most imperative rationale of this study is to examine the aspects that determine the service quality with reference to the physical environment, interaction and behavior quality of employees towards customer satisfaction, and brand image. The primary data have been collected by means of a questionnaire tool from the guests visiting Hotels in Temple city Kumbakonam. The data collected has been analyzed using SPSS software, and the tools used are frequency analysis, Correlation and Regression. The major findings of this study are Interaction and behavior quality of employees influences customer satisfaction by 21.6% and customer loyalty by 28% and brand image by 67.2%.
A MULTI-PORT CRUISE REGION: DYNAMICS AND HIERARCHIES IN THE MEDAthanasios A. Pallis, Kleopatra P. Arapi
study generates knowledge on the patterns, structures, and geography of
growth of the cruise port industry in the Mediterranean and its
adjoining seas. The analysis of the passenger movements in the period
2005-2014, as provided by cruise port authorities, details the port
hierarchy and reveals transformation of the region from a cluster of
port destinations hosting a certain thousands of cruise passengers to a
multi-port cruise region accommodating several millions of passenger
movements. An adapted application of the ‘multi-port
region’ concept, originally developed in cargo port studies
extends research to intra-region dynamics and exposes previously
unexplored imbalances that co-exist with the overall growth of a
commonly seen and homogeneous single cruise region. The picture
completes with the examination of the unbalanced trends in the major 20
cruise ports in the Med, and the levels of market concentration. The
findings call for similar analyses, and not least comparisons, with
other regions. With Asia appearing in the strategies of cruise lines as
a deployment region and a source market, and the Med experiencing
volatile trends, they are also practically helpful for those involved
in the development and management of cruise ports.
DETERMINANTS OF TOURISM FLOWS TO GREECE: A GRAVITY MODEL APPROACHVisar Malaj, Soultana Tania Kapiki
The purpose of this paper is to identify the main demand and supply determinants of international tourism flows to Greece, given the significant impact of tourism on the country’s economy. For the empirical analysis the authors estimated an original gravity equation in which tourism flows depend on classic as well as experimental factors. The used dataset includes tourist arrivals from 19 countries over the period 2005-2015. The resulting coefficient of determination of this model is relatively high and the considered variables are statistically significant. Tourism flows to Greece are negatively affected by the bilateral distance and climate similarity between Greece and the origin countries; furthermore, the response variable is positively affected by the investments in the transport infrastructure, the country’s stability, the incomes and the EU membership of the origin countries. The proposed recommendations to the Greek stakeholders include: creation of qualitative infrastructure; synergies with other sectors; boost of competitiveness; establishment of Greece as a safe destination; and, promotional campaigns.
AN OVERVIEW OF RURAL TOURISM IN CROATIA AND SERBIADamir Demonja, Vladimir Stojanović, Mirjana Penić
In the tourism development plans in Croatia and Serbia, rural tourism has a place of special importance. Taking into account the total population of rural areas, total surface area they occupy in these countries and the presence of diverse tourism potential (preserved nature and cultural heritage), rural tourism could become a powerful tool in achieving the goals of sustainable development of rural areas. Regardless of all social differences between Croatia and Serbia, it can be assumed that rural areas share common problems. They are exposed to depopulation, slow economic development and poorly developed infrastructure. There is a dilemma that raises the question of how much these two countries in their joint tourism development initiatives can contribute to resolving problems of rural areas, and in particular their border regions.
EDUCATING A NEW GENERATION OF TOUR GUIDES FOR THE FORTHCOMING ERA, AT THE ARISTOTLE UNIVERSITY OF THESSALONIKIMatoula Scaltsa, Paraskevi Nitsiou, Polyxeni Georgaki
year 2012 proved to be of great significance for the history of tourism
education in Greece. The prevailing system of ‘State Schools for
Tour Guides’ was to be paused by the Greek State, after, almost,
sixty years of continuous presence. The government's decision to invite
the university in initiating a new program of educating tour guides by
hosting the “Intensive Courses for Professional Guides”
has, arguably, greatly endorsed both the tour-guide’s profile and
their achieved services. According to the new ministerial decision No.
18062/20.12.2012 (Φ.Ε.Κ. 3401 Β΄), it is only
graduates who have read archaeology, history, art history, ethnology
and social anthropology, that are eligible to attend the course, and
following its completion, start working as official state tour-guides.
The background of the candidate is seen as crucial for the service they
will be providing. Accessing contemporary cultural theories,
visitor-oriented approaches and current museological practices and
tools, as well as further educational methods and skills, they are
building up on their former training, eventually becoming able to
deliver new interpretations of the past. They are, therefore, given the
opportunity to revisit and redefine the final product they come to
communicate with their work, trained to approach the tangible and
intangible aspects of Greek heritage from another angle. As Greece has
a strong presence in the area of cultural tourism, a rapidly growing
segment of the total tourist market, the newly established university
program comes to provide an ideal professional expertise for guides to
deliver fully updated experiential narratives. A smart tourism market
willing to develop and improve its impact on economy should embody such
a professional branch as a tool for a qualitatively profitable effect.
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