TOURISMOS: An International Multidisciplinary Refereed Journal of Tourism
Volume 9, Number 2, 2014
Creative Commons: BY-NC-ND
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INTEGRATED CULTURAL TOURISM: NEW EXPERIENCES IN MOUNTAIN AREAS
Josep M? Prat Forga & Gemma Canoves Valiente
Tourism has for some time been viewed as providing a lifeline for mountain areas where agriculture is in decline and few alternative employment opportunities exist. One of the manifestations is cultural tourism, which, besides revaluing the heritage of a territory, can be made compatible with rural tourism. This paper analyzes integrated cultural tourism in mountain areas, including the scale, degree of embeddedness, endogeneity, sustainability and role of interactions between tourists and local people. This research is based on a survey with cultural tourists in the Pyrenees (Catalonia, Spain). They are presented in the context of the experience of tourists in mountainous areas, related to the practical operation of integrated cultural tourism. The results reveal that this cultural tourism has strong links to the natural environment in the study area but that there are existing threats to integration in the physical and social domains.
CREATING A SUPPLY TYPOLOGY. GREECE AS A CASE STUDY
The objective of this paper is to illustrate both the necessity and the methodology for the creation of a supply typology which will be able to contribute to decision-making process. A supply typology can contribute in policy formulation and implementation that can lead to the overall goal of sustainability in a destination area. The methodology proposed by this paper is based in the use of Geographical Information Systems (GIS) as a tool of visualizing and communicating a big amount of information stored in data bases. Are data are stored in time series and they concern the minimum available spatial scale and policy formulation and implementation for tourism. The case study area of this paper will be the Greek coastal and insular area. In order for all available data to be recorded, analyzed, synthesized and, finally, spatially visualized, the use of advanced information technologies is essential. Furthermore, the use of technologies and methodologies that can categorize data and various multi-combinations of them are also essential. In this case, the use of Geographical Information Systems (GIS) combined with the Fuzzy c-Means algorithm was used.
THE IMPACT OF THAI TOURISM ON THE ECONOMIC GROWTH OF TOURISM IN LAO PDR: A HIERARCHICAL APPROACH
Sakkarin Nonthapot &Nattanin Ueasin
This study examines the relationship between the economic growth of tourism in Lao PDR, and the number of Thai tourists visiting Lao PDR, international trade and the exchange rate by employing a hierarchical model using quarterly data from Q1 2000 – Q1 2012. It was found that the number of Thai tourists visiting Lao PDR has both short and long run causality on the GDP of tourism. This result shows that Thai tourists are important and has a causal relationship with the economic growth of tourism in Lao PDR. This study suggests that Lao PDR should maintain Thai tourist groups and create new tourism products to encourage Thai tourists to visit Lao PDR, which would contribute to the economic development of Lao PDR..
AN INVESTIGATION ON CULTURAL CUISINE OF MAINLAND CHINA. MANAGEMENT IMPLICATIONS FOR RESTAURANT OPERATORS
Angelo Camillo & Loredana Di Pietro
Historical records show that food has always played an important role in the cultural evolution of mankind. Eating culture, rituals, and food preferences based on environmental and social conditions emerged steadily over time. Italian food culture based on traditional Italian cooking has evolved into one of the worlds most prevalent. Since China opened the doors to international trade, Chinese consumers have been exposed to both Italian cuisine and Italian food and beverage products. In this scenario, the aim of this study is to investigate factors contributing to the popularity of Italian cuisine in mainland China and identify implications for restaurant operators. Specifically the study identifies those factors that may or may not contribute to the expansion and sustainability of Italian cuisine in mainland China. This study will help understand how the Chinese perceive foreign cuisines such as Italian and, in turn, attempts to identify the determinants that make this cuisine popular now with potential for growth in the future.
ARE BACKPACKERS A HOMOGENEOUS SEGMENT? A STUDY OF BACKPACKERS’ MOTIVATIONS IN THE CAPE COAST-ELMINA CONURBATION, GHANA
The purpose of the study was to assess whether or not backpackers are homogeneous, using those who visited the Cape Coast-Elmina conurbation, Ghana. Questionnaire was used to collect data from 200 backpackers in Cape Coast and Elmina. The factor analysis, one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), independent samples t-test, and descriptive statistical analysis were employed in the discussion of the data. The study revealed that backpackers who visited the Cape Coast-Elmina conurbation were mostly young international students. Six (6) main push-pull related factors, including historical/cultural attractions, service delivery, ecological attractions, heritage, escape, and adventure were found to have explained backpackers’ motivation for visiting Ghana. There was sufficient evidence to conclude that backpackers are not the same, in relation to their background characteristics and motivations to travel. It is recommended that local travel intermediaries focus attention on packaging tailored tours that will sell the country’s historical, cultural and ecological attractions to backpackers.
MEDICAL TOURISM AND THE ROLE OF E-MEDICAL TOURISM INTERMEDIARIES IN GREECE
Ioannis Sarantopoulos, Katsoni Vicky & Mary Geitona
The aim of this paper is to investigate the tourist industry’s satisfaction with medical tourism in Greece, the factors associated with its performance improvement and the ICT infrastructure underlying it. For this purpose, a nationwide survey was carried out in 2012. According to our findings, satisfaction of tourist company executives with their performance in handling the flow of medical tourists depends on the degree of company staff training on medical tourism. In addition, the important role of state agencies or local government in guaranteeing local infrastructure availability and quality is a fact that influences directly tourism entrepreneurship in the country. Obviously, medical tourism in Greece could constitute an important source of national income and consequently, an alternative for the country to exit the economic crisis, provided care is given to ICT infrastructure and legislation procedures.
ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS OF TOURISM ON LOCALS’ PERCEIVED IMPORTANCE OF SUSTAINABLE TOURISM
Mehran Nejati, Badaruddin Mohamed & Shida Irwana Omar
Since engagement of locals plays a key role in the success of any tourism development, understanding how residents perceive sustainable tourism and the ways it is influenced by their perception about environmental impacts of tourism provides researchers, administrators and service providers in tourism sector with invaluable insights. Thus, the current research vies to contribute to the knowledge concerning how local residents in Perhentian and Redang Islands in Malaysia perceive environmental impacts of tourism and the importance of sustainable tourism. Study results reveals that the highest concern about the environmental impacts of tourism was perceived for landscape, air quality, and water quality, respectively. Moreover, by investigating the causal link between perception towards six major environmental impacts of tourism and the perceived importance of sustainable tourism, it was found that only environmental impacts of tourism on air quality and landscape significantly influenced local residents’ perceptions about the importance of sustainable tourism.
INFRASTRUCTURE INFLUENCE ON TOURIST MOVEMENTS IN MELAKA
Jamil Jusoh &Nor Fatimah Abd Hamid
This study presents the type and infrastructure elements that contribute to the movement of tourists in the Heritage City of Melaka, Malaysia. The Tourist Movement Infrastructure framework has been proposed to study the infrastructure elements that influence the tourist movements. Questionnaires were used as a medium to obtain feedback from tourists. Data was analyzed from the 197 feedback obtained from domestic and international tourists. Factor analysis and regression analysis are used to achieve the study objectives. This study introduces infrastructure elements that could affect the tourist movements in historical areas and may be applied in historical areas that have similar geographical characteristics. Particularly, the main infrastructure that affects tourist movement is accessibility. Overall, These results of this study can help the decision makers of Melaka historic areas to improve the provision of infrastructure accessibility in the study area.
SUSTAINABLE TOURISM PRACTICES OF ACCOMMODATION ESTABLISHMENTS IN BULGARIA
Stanislav Ivanov, Maya Ivanova & Katia Iankova
The goal of current paper is to identify the role of property’s category, product and size on degree of application of various sustainable practices by Bulgarian accommodation establishments. Results from the Kruskal-Wallis tests show that all three factors (category, location and size) cause statistically significant differences among the accommodation establishments in Bulgaria regarding the degree of application of the sustainable tourism practices. The paper concludes that Bulgarian accommodation establishments are still in the beginning of adopting sustainable practices. Managerial implications, limitations and directions for future research are also discussed.
GASTRONOMIC TOURISM: MEASURING MOTIVATIONS, CONSUMER’S SATISFACTION AND PROPOSING EFFECTIVE MARKETING STRATEGIES
The culinary tourism is one of the alternative forms of tourism which although, it may contribute to further development of Greek product, is not utilized. The objective of this research is its development through gastronomic festivals. Our survey is studied participants motives in such events and their perceived level of satisfaction in order to proposed effective marketing strategies which contribute to adoption and growth. In this specific case, ‘Tomato Festival’, was the gastronomic festival which had been chosen in order our survey took place. A questionnaire was developed in order socio-demographics and trip characteristics, motives and perceived level of satisfaction of participants, in such kind of festivals, to be examined. The target - group, for our survey, was both women and men over 18 years old and the questionnaires were answered from festival’s attendees, when they left, at the entrance.
CURRENT STATE AND POTENTIAL OF WINE TOURISM IN NORTHERN GREECE: WEIGHING WINEMAKERS’ PERCEPTIONS
Maria C. Alebaki, Olga I. Iakovidou & George C. Menexes
Over the last two decades, the mutual cooperation between the wine and the tourism industry led to the development of a rapidly growing sector, namely wine tourism. The profitability and success of this venture are affected by a wide range of factors. Thus, wine tourism has been viewed as a form of consumer behavior, as a developmental strategy that destinations adopt in order to utilize their distinct ‘wine tourism terroir’ and as a direct selling and educational opportunity for wineries. A stream of research focuses on both the ‘winery’ and the ‘wine region’ perspectives, employing case-study approaches. However, the need for data collection from multiple destinations has been stressed, as systematic comparison could shed light on the broader picture of the phenomenon. Within this framework, this paper adds to the existing empirical literature by providing aspects of wine tourism development in Northern Greece region. In particular, the current study aims to compile the profile of the wine industry, to examine the winemakers’ level of involvement with tourism activities, as well as to explore their perceptions towards the factors that could expand the potential of wine tourism. A census approach was undertaken, with the use of a structured questionnaire which was sent to each winery directly. Results indicate that wineries in Northern Greece are predominantly small and privately-owned. The majority of them have engaged in wine tourism during the last five years, in an attempt to gain promotional benefits. Apart from descriptive statistics, Principal Component Analysis (PCA) showed that wine tourism can be further developed by variable combinations of five components, labeled as: ‘Political-institutional’, ‘Regional infrastructure’, ‘Tourism facilities in the winery’, ‘Promotion’ and ‘Wine tourism events’.
ANALYSING THE POTENTIAL OF WINE TOURISM OF THE ISLAND OF FOGO (CAPE VERDE)
Tomas Lopez-Guzman, Ana Maria Castillo Canalejo & Jose Maria Cerezo Lopez
The relationship between agriculture and tourism is allowing for improved economic development in rural areas and is improving tourists’ experiences. The literature highlights that both sectors can be complementary and can develop in conjunction with each other, generating wealth and creating jobs. This paper presents an analysis into the potential of wine tourism on the island of Fogo. To this end, the results of fieldwork carried out on the island are presented, consisting of an analysis of tourists’ evaluation of aspects related to wine and cuisine. The main results show that the wine sector is developing on the island, as well as areas associated with wine such as cuisine and craftwork, highlighting the importance of hospitality and the creation of tourism routes. It can therefore be concluded that the promotion of wine tourism could create links between agriculture, culture and tourism which could lead to greater socioeconomic development.
Research Case Studies:
A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF THE IMPACT OF LIBERALIZATION OF AIR TRANSPORT ON TOURISM: IRAN, TURKEY AND UAE
Ali Shakoori & Seyed Masoud Mirtalebi Aghdam
This paper examine the impact of the liberalization of international air transport on the development of international tourism by comparing Iran with Turkey and the UAE in a 10 year period 2000-2010, using comparative-longitudinal method. It is assumed that the liberalization of international air transport leads to the development of international tourism through the growth of traffic, mainly via the Growth of the tourist's quantity and quality. Our investigation concludes that First, the liberalization of air transport made air traffic passengers to be increased considerably in the UAE and Turkey, as compared to Iran. This, in turn, resulted to development of tourism in both countries through a considerable increase of their number of tourists and visitor exports. Second, as compared to the UAE, Iran and Turkey have more potential to develop tourism, however, the UAE, owing to the adoption of more flexible air transport liberal policies, could surpass Iran and Turkey in gaining the higher amount of visitor exports.
SPECIFICATION OF TARGET MARKET IN SMALL AND MEDIUM SCALE ACCOMADATION BUSINESSES: A STUDY ON BOUTIQUE HOTELS OPERATING IN CITY OF MUGLA
Aytekin Firat, Gulay Ozaltin Turker & Ismail Metin
Turkey’s natural and historical beauties are available for tourism facilitate the development of the industry in the country. However, uncontrolled construction and damaging nature unconsciously by building concrete walls on the sides of coastlines keep weakening the industry. In this respect, boutique hotels are emerging as small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs) which are built either by protecting the natural plantation or by restoring old buildings. The main goal of this research is to introduce boutique hotels as a flourishing enterprises in the light of changing structure and trends of tourism industry, to determine the contributions of boutique hotels to Turkish tourism industry, to point out and call attention to the problems of these enterprises according to demands and expectations of guests, and to develop some solutions concerning existing problems, to specify what kind of marketing tools are used and to investigate targeting strategies of the enterprises defined.
NON-ASIAN TOURISTS' VIEWS ON SINGAPORE CULTURAL TOURISM
Voon Chin Phua & Doug Berkowitz
Promoting ethnic cultural tourism is an important aspect of an overall tourism strategy in Singapore. The Singapore Tourism Board (STB) actively leverages the country’s limited natural resources and short history to ensure the viability and competitiveness of this industry. In this research note, we examine non-Asian tourists’ perceptions of Singapore’s ethnic cultural tourism and make recommendations for future promotion. The results from a survey conducted in 2009 show that non-Asian tourists’ participation in ethnic cultural tourism in Singapore is mostly accidental and is less for cultural aspects than for cheap shopping and low-priced food. The challenge for the Singapore tourism industry is to balance profit-generation with cultural retention and education.
RESIDENTS’ ATTITUDES AND SUPPORT FOR TOURISM DEVELOPMENT
Mostafa Mohammadi & Zainab Khalifah
Based on current literature, this study developed a theoretical model of residents' support for tourism, and a series of hypotheses was proposed. The model and the hypotheses of the study were tested by structural equation modeling approach from responses collected from residents of Bistoon in Iran. The findings revealed that residents ' support for tourism, is affected directly and/or indirectly by: Ecocentric Attitudes, Place Attachment, Utilization of Tourism Resource by Resident, Community Concern, Participation in Tourism Development , Social Identity, Economic Benefits, Economic costs, Social benefits, Social Costs, Environmental Benefits and Environmental Costs. An additional finding revealed that in a community which is experiencing economic problems, residents are likely to view tourism as a means of improving their economic position while underestimating the tourism development costs.
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