TOURISMOS: An International Multidisciplinary Refereed Journal of Tourism


ISSN: 1790-8418 (print)
ISSN: 1792-6521 (online)





Volume 8, Number 3, 2013

Creative Commons: BY-NC-ND

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Special Issue: Tourism Destination Marketing & Management

Guest Editors: Chris A. Vassiliadis & Maro Vlachopoulou

Stock-option-based executive compensation plans and lodging firms’ risk-taking

Ming-Che Chien, Min-Ming Wen & Charles C. Yang

This study investigates the impact of stock-option-based (SOB) executive compensation by lodging industry firms on risk-taking, and whether or not perceptions of the risk firms face affects the design of CEOs’ compensation contracts. The data analyzed include market-based risk measures and executive compensation for 98 firms over the period from 1992 to 2005 (totalling 734 firm-CEO observations). The study examines research questions by using three-stage least squares in estimating a two-equation simultaneous equation system, in which both firm’s risks and compensation structures are endogenous. Risk is measured by total risk and idiosyncratic risk. Results show that contracts with large versus small bonus-option components induce risk-taking and in addition, perceptions of firms’ risk do substantially impact the design of compensation contracts.



Irene Tilikidou, Antonia Delistavrou & Christos Sarmaniotis

Presents examination of consumers’ intentions to boycott a hotel due to certain unethical business practices.  The orthogonal design of Conjoint Analysis formulated 10 types of hotels based on 4 attributes: environmental damage, unethical labour conditions, price and ownership. The results indicated that almost all respondents declared their intentions to boycott those hotels, which have been accused of both environmental damage and unethical labour practises. Customers, who declared the higher intentions to boycott those hotels, accused solely for environmental damage, are above 34 years of age, employees and retired persons. These customers are influenced by their past boycotting experience and by their intentions to boycott brands “guilty” of financial support to wars and unfair profiting. Customers, who declared the higher intentions to boycott the hotels, accused solely for unfair labour practices, are also above 34 years of age. They would boycott their favourable brands if they were accused for exploitation of workforce.


Tourism property acquisition in south africa: a destination marketing analysis

Marios Sotiriadis & Adrinet Snyman

In the highly competitive environment of the tourism industry it has become increasingly important to attract different market segments. This is probably a more challenging task for South Africa (SA) which is becoming a globally emerging destination. The aim of this paper is to report on a study which explored the main supply-side factors influencing households and individuals in purchasing tourism property in SA. The research findings indicated that the five pull factors are, in order of importance, natural resources, government policy, country’s perception and infrastructure, competitiveness, and economy. The current study allows for a better understanding of the factors that influence the decision of foreigners to invest in tourism properties in SA and indicates the close relationship between tourism property acquisition by foreigners and tourism destination marketing. The findings also suggest that destination marketers should seriously consider this market segment to be incorporated into destination marketing planning and activities.



Deyan Hristov & Petia Petrova

This paper investigates the current degree of collaboration and partnerships in marketing and promotion bounded by municipal bodies and other public organisations, involved in urban heritage tourism. As the majority of published research projects accentuate on private and mixed stakeholder alliances, this study is important in order to uncover the scope of collaborative activity among public sector organisations. The research approach adopted in this project includes the application of a case study in the heritage town of Plovdiv, Bulgaria. The findings provide evidence that public organisations need to realise the benefits of mutual marketing and promotion activities created in a local, regional and Internet-based context. The roles of the local airport, urban events, as well as the Internet should be recognised and used as a catalyst of tourism demand.


Exploring the Cognitive Image of a tourism destination

Nikolaos Stylos & Andreas Andronikidis

This paper explores and evaluates the structure of the cognitive component of tourism destination image. The empirical study is operationalized in a sun-and-sand tourism destination of a Greek region. Given the reported multidimensionality of the construct, and the critic on the psychometric properties of previously defined scales measuring tourism destination image, this study examines the applicability of a new scale and provides empirical evidence to propose an alternative component structure for the formation of cognitive tourism destination image. Our analysis suggests four image dimensions: (1) must-be conditions (2) attractive conditions, (3) appealing activities, and (4) natural environment. Implications are discussed.



Irene C.  Kamenidou, Spyridon A. Mamalis, George Kokkinis & Christos Geranis

This study explored 141 British tourists’ perception of Kavos’ Corfu as a destination. It measured the components of Kavos’ destination image. Data was collected with an aided self –completion questionnaire and data analysis included descriptive statistics (frequencies, percentages and means), reliability, and factor and cluster analysis. 18 destination components were rated on a 5-point Likert scale and continuously factor analyzed, producing 4 factors and accounting for 80.7% of the total variance. Segmentation based on factors produced 3 segments with N=32; 50 and 59 British tourists respectively and with Final Cluster Centers ranging from 3.03 to 4.60. This research has contributed to the theoretical gap of the tourism industry literature regarding destination image formation in the Mediterranean and specifically Greece. These results can be used as a basis for destination improvement and strategy formation.



Androniki Kavoura & Vicky Katsoni

The role of networks has been recently associated with tourism planning. It may lead to a win-win situation for the promotion of a destination, since all parts involved cooperate to promote a uniform and complete tourist experience. Visitors, residents and business organizations who are associated directly or indirectly with a market destination need to develop dynamic relations through co-operation. The paper argues for the necessity of public and private collaboration, an issue that needs to be taken into consideration when networks are created for tourism marketing. National tourism organisations can have a significant role to play in these networks. To this end, the role of social media and information technology is of significance for destination marketing. Incorporation of information and communication technologies and the adoption of c-commerce in a marketing tourism destination strategy may strengthen networks and alliances between the public-private sector for the implementation of a successful tourism development.



Agnes Otjen

The Beartooth Nature Center (BNC) is Montana’s premier wildlife education refuge.  Home to over seventy wild animals unable to be returned to their natural environments after accidents or abandonment, the BNC houses mountain lions, bears, moose, bobcats, and a variety of large birds. Located in Red lodge, Montana, the northern gateway to the world- renowned Yellowstone National Park, the BNC is in a unique position to create greater awareness of important ecological and wilderness sustainability issues for.  Primarily funded through donations from tourists and local residents, effective branding and marketing are crucial for its survival.  This article presents a 2011 student-driven brand development and marketing campaign designed to create greater visibility and name recognition for the BNC.  Using contemporary theories which emphasize the importance of including all stakeholders in the branding process, students created a brand-positioning television and targeted collateral campaign. As a result of this campaign, attendance at the BNC doubled the following summer. This case study confirms that bringing multiple stakeholders into the branding process is a highly effective way to create a powerful message for eco-tourist destinations.



Evangelos Christou

Brand confusion takes place when a person views an advertisement for a particular brand as a communication about a different brand. The purpose of this study is to investigate the problem of brand confusion in advertising and more specifically, to study into more depth some of the parameters that lead to brand confusion in print advertising of international hotel-chains. This study was conducted in 127 men and women, and based on 17 international hotel-chain advertisements. Respondents were selected through quota sampling, using age and education as variables. Consumer characteristics and the dependent variable ‘brand confusion’ were measured through a questionnaire completed during interview, while print advertisements were presented followed by a set of questions containing measures of the attitude towards the advertisement. The purpose of this study was to explore the issue of brand confusion in advertising of international hotel chains, a topic never surveyed in the past. This study was limited to a specific product category (international hotel chains), hence practical implications should be formulated with caution. Nevertheless, the following suggestions seem to be valid: The affective reaction to hotel advertisement is very important; advertisement likeability leads to less hotel brand confusion; hotel advertisements should be distinctive and not too information dense; building awareness, loyalty and involvement reduce brand confusion.



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