TOURISMOS: An International Multidisciplinary Refereed Journal of Tourism


 

ISSN: 1790-8418 (print)
ISSN: 1792-6521 (online)

 

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Volume 8, Number 2, 2013

Creative Commons: BY-NC-ND

To download Volume 8, Number 2 in PDF form please click here (the file is approximately 4,85 MB and it opens in a new window).

 

Research Papers:

 

PERSPECTIVES AND PRACTICES OF CSR IN THE HOSPITALITY INDUSTRY: ANALYZING A CASE STUDY

Patricia Martinez & Ignacio Rodriguez del Bosque

This paper aims to offer a preliminary case study  of CSR issues being addressed in the hospitality sector in order to disseminate best practice. By employing a qualitative research findings reveal that Melia Hotels International has its own approach to CSR by incorporating a new cultural dimension to this notion. Moreover, findings illustrate how MHI define its CSR policy according to the stakeholder approach, being the main beneficiaries from these activities consumers and local communities. This study also provides evidence that strength of CSR commitment varies by topic, and that value creation for MHI can be uncertain since many CSR initiatives do not cause a reduction in costs.

 

Managing Conflicting Attitudes: National Parks in Iceland and Japan

Harald Schaller, Haukur Ingi Jonasson  & Tetsuya Aikoh

For many protected areas, the inclusion of interested parties in decision-making processes has become both more important and common. The range of interests can lead to a variety of conflicts. Given the diversity of stakeholders, effective conflict management requires an integrated communicative approach that addresses this range interests. Yet the question remains: Are techniques developed for a specific case, and in one particular culture, applicable to other cases? To explore this question we compared the attitudes of stakeholders inVatnajokull National Park in Iceland and Daisetsuzan National Park in Japan regarding conflict, communication and consensus. Despite the cultural and geographical distance between the two cases, the results show an 84% concurrence in stakeholder views, leading the authors to conclude that, despite minor differences, conflict management techniques can be applied across cultural borders provided that managers are sensitive to local understandings of how people relate to their social and natural environments.

 

EXPLORING TOURISTS’ ‘PUSH AND PULL’ MOTIVATIONS TO VISIT MAURITIUS AS A HOLIDAY DESTINATION

Hemant Kassean Senior Lecturer & Rhaalib Gassita

This study examines the motivational push and pull factors that affect tourists’ decision in their choice of a holiday destination. 200 questionnaires were completed using a face to face interview among specific groups of travellers to Mauritius (English, French, German, Italian and South African tourists) at various points on the island. The findings show that rest and relaxation are the most compelling push motivation forces followed by nostalgia, escape, novelty, social interaction. The key pull based motives were found to be climate and weather, landscape and scenery, flora and fauna, beaches, the exotic atmosphere, the Mauritian hospitality and authentic Mauritian culture. Push and pull factors between first time visitors and repeat visitors are discussed.This study contributes to our overall understanding of why holiday makers take travel decisions for long haul destinations like Mauritius and can therefore help destination marketers develop better marketing programmes to meet the specific needs.

 

INTERNATIONAL TOURISTS’ ENVIRONMENTAL ATTITUDE TOWARDS HOTELS IN ACCRA

Ishmael Mensah & Rebecca Dei Mensah

The available literature suggests that there has been a rise in green consumerism, not only among general consumers but tourists. This has provided the impetus for the ‘greening’ of hotels as hotel guests have indicated their preference for hotels that ‘take care of the environment’. Ironically, the environmental impacts of hotels especially with regards to the consumption of energy and water are more likely to be exacerbated by their guests. In spite of this, most studies on environmental management in hotels have centred on programmes and initiatives undertaken by management with little focus on the attitudes and behaviour of guests. This study sought to assess international tourists’ environmental attitude towards hotels in Accra and the implications for environmental management by hotels. A sample of 343 international tourists was surveyed at major tourist attraction sites in Accra. The results of the study indicate that a majority of respondents generally held the view that hotels do not destroy the environment but contribute to the global environmental problems. Most of them (83%) were therefore willing to pay more to stay in a hotel with a responsible environmental attitude. There was also a significant positive relationship between some socio-demographic characteristics of tourist such age and sex and their environmental behaviour. The results of this study have implications for environmental education of guests and the marketing of hotels.

 

The Role of Tourism in Sustainable Development Strategies

Francesc Romagosa, Gerda K. Priestley & Joan Carles Llurdes

In recent years, sustainability has become a fundamental component of all planning processes, while, on the other hand, tourism is seldom seen as a key or priority sector in overall planning. In this article, diverse approaches to sustainable planning that include tourism are examined in order to provide a conceptual framework and some points of reference to contextualize the posterior analysis of a recent planning process undertaken in Catalonia, Spain. The discourse focuses on the proposals, the difficulties encountered in establishing objectives and indicators, leading finally to an evaluation of the suitability and foreseeable effectiveness of the measures approved.

 

TOURISM IMPACTS and SUPPORT FOR TOURISM DEVELOPMENT: THE CASE OF PAMUKKALE IN TURKEY

Serkan Bertan,  Ercan Sirakaya-Turk & Volkan Altintas

This study examines the relationship between residents’ perceived tourism impacts and their support for tourism development. The study was conducted on local residents of Pamukkale, an ancient resort town in the Aegean region of Turkey that is renowned for its thermal tourism resources in the world. To examine the relationship between variables, tourism impact domains were regressed against the support for tourism. The findings revealed positive relationship between tourism impacts and residents’ support for tourism development.

 

INFLUENCE OF CERTAIN VARIABLES ON ORGANISATIONAL COMMITMENT: A CASE STUDY IN THE hotel sector OF  CORDOBA

Francisco Gonzalez Santa Cruz, Sandra Maria Sanchez Canizares & Tomas Lopez-Guzman

The hotel industry is characterised by close and direct contact between the employee and the customer. For this reason, one of the most effective ways to achieve customer satisfaction and loyalty is to ensure that employees who provide the service feel committed to the organisation where they work. By doing so, hotel businesses can gain a sustainable competitive advantage and improve organisational performance. Based on these premises, this article aims to determine the relationships between certain variables associated with the job and the organisational commitment of the individual. The hypotheses tests reveal a strong relationship between stable and permanent employment and higher levels of organisational commitment among hotel employees.

 

ARE STUDENTS AND TEACHERS READY FOR BOLOGNA? A PEDAGOGICAL PROJECT IN A TOURISM COURSE

Ana Ramos, George Ramos, Alexandra Cruchinho, Fernanda Delgado, Paula Pereira, Paula Sapeta & Paulo Afonso

The implementation of the Bologna process in higher education leads to rethinking the teaching-learning assumptions. Higher education today is focused on curricula, teaching-learning processes, subjects and course programmes attending to European credits system, teachers’ qualification and training, academic success and scholar results, performance standards, assessment of institutions, assessment of skills (and not merely knowledge).In 2010 a project (Construction of Learning | ConstAp) was developed in the Polytechnic Institute of Castelo Branco, Portugal. The main goal was to motivate the adoption of changes concerning classroom methodologies and students’ autonomous workload guidance in the scope of the Bologna process implementation.This paper presents a proposal of pedagogical intervention to deal with the mentioned objectives, a project applied in a specific tourism course. The paper presents the first results collected regarding the project’s implementation and seeks to impart a methodology that can be applied to similar courses.

 

DETERMINING THE TOURISM DEVELOPMENTAL DYNAMICS OF THE GREEK REGIONS, BY USING TALC THEORY

Serafeim Polyzos, Tsiotas Dimitrios & Alexios Kantlis

This paper utilizes the theoretical framework of the Tourism Area Life Cycle (TALC) model and applies an empirical analysis on the data for the period 1980- 2009. The TALC multi-stage process is simulated to a logistic curve and thus it obtains a characteristic growth coefficient r(t) expressing its time duration. This study considers three versions for the logistic growth coefficient and presents the spatial distribution of each coefficient on the Greek interregional map. This approach allows to distinguish the regions that they have reached their tourism developmental capabilities faster than the others and to distinguish these that are still capable for further development. The overall treatment provides the developmental potentials of each Greek prefecture and elects some interesting issues for the tourism policy making in Greece.

 

A note on the mechanisms to obtain sustainable ecotourism through price management

Juan Gabriel Brida, Nicolas Garrido, Francesco Mureddu & Juan Sebastian Pereyra

This note studies a market signal mechanism for assessing the short and long term tradeoff offered by the existence of natural resources in a tourism destination. We develop a theoretical model in which the destination price index is the tool for obtaining the sustainability of tourist areas. We assume that the stock of natural resources accumulates due to the regenerative natural capacity, but, at the same time, it is negatively affected by the number of tourists. When the demand price elasticity is higher than one, we show that there is a tradeoff between the use of the natural resources and the development of the tourism sector. In this scenario, we analyze how the optimal price changes as the parameters of the model vary.

 

THE EFFECTS OF SUPPLY CHAIN MANAGEMENT APPLICATIONS ON THE PERFORMANCES OF ACCOMMODATION ESTABLISHMENT OPERATING IN TOURISM INDUSTRY

Kamil Yagc? & Gurkan Akdag

The fierce global competition in the 21st century is focused on supply chains rather than on individual companies. From a macro perspective, supply chain is a network of enterprises which are engaged in different functions ranging from the supply of the raw materials through the production and delivery of the end-product to the target customers. In this study, an investigation on large scale accommodation enterprises has been conducted that aims to find out the impact of supply chain practices on business performance.

 

the Pro Loco Italian volunteers involved in the promotion of tourist events

Alessandra Fermani, Mina Sehdev & Olena Motuzenko

The purpose of this study was describing who are the volunteers involved in the Pro Loco association; analysing how the sense of identification is strong in the participants; identifying the functions of motivations and the sense of self-efficacy and collective efficacy in the participants. Participants were 222 Italian volunteers. The 49% of them were members of the Pro Loco for more than 6 years. They show a strong identification with the group. The main reasons for their involvement and commitment in Pro Loco are community function and understanding function; on the other hand the career function is not a linked motivation. Volunteers show good levels of self-efficacy and collective efficacy and a positive association between function, identification and sense of self-efficacy and collective efficacy. Regressions show that the motivation to community function and understanding function are predictors of identification and sense of self-efficacy and collective efficacy.

 

Impact of green marketing on perceived image and behavioural intentions of consumers: Empirical evidence from restaurant practices

Arup Kumar Baksi & Bivraj Bhusan Parida

The detrimental effects of global environmental turbulence have influenced consumers’ preferences towards consuming eco-safe products/services, more popularly nomenclated as ‘green products/services’. Industries have also identified this shift and are not only redesigning their products/offers but also projecting themselves as ‘green firms’. This study empirically attempts to investigate the possible causal impact of green marketing initiatives on the perceived image of restaurants and its subsequent influence on the behavioural intentions of the consumers. Four tourist destinations in West Bengal, India, were identified for the study and eight restaurants were surveyed. Appropriate statistical procedures and structural equation modeling were applied. The results revealed a significant correlation between the variables under study with perceived consumer effectiveness playing a critical role in segmenting consumers on the basis of their affinity to greenness as an element to perceive restaurant image. The study has future scopes where demographical effects and price-sensitivity may be tested.

 

EXAMINING THE IMAGE OF A TOURISM DESTINATION: EVIDENCE FROM CRETE

Panagiotis Kassianidis

The empirical work reported here was aimed at investigating Crete’s fundamental attraction elements; six factors related to Crete’s image were identified and examined in terms of their significance in predicting and explaining its overall image. While analysing the factors, ‘seaside activities’ was determined to be the most significant factor in identifying Crete’s overall destination image. Through relevant factor analysis and subsequent multiple regression analysis, it was established that highly rated destination image dimensions may be among the most important ones influencing the destination’s overall tourism image. Management implications are discussed and recommended.

 

FACTORS AFFECTING MUSEUM VISITORS’ SATISFACTION: THE CASE OF GREEK MUSEUMS

Mavragani Eleni & Lymperopoulos Constantine

Greek museums, in the new era of economic recession, face the agony of surviving and at the same time chase the challenges for sustainable development. The scope of this survey is to define the groups of tourists who visited Greek public museums and their evaluations of the museums’ services. The cluster analysis, forms different groups of tourists, and the principal component analysis reveals the factors that represent museum’s quality characteristics. The analysis of variance follows, to correlate the already defined clusters per factors and to answer the research questions. The quantitative research reveals that, there are three different groups of tourists, and confirms that visitors behave according to the group they belong. Therefore, in formulating a strategy to attract and satisfy the cultural tourists, the improvement in the provision of educational services and the better training of the personnel are needed, since most problems are noticed on these aspects.

 

Research Case Studies:

 

ATTITUDES OF LOCAL RESIDENTS TOWARD THE DEVELOPMENT OF TOURISM IN A DEVELOPING SOCIETY: THE CASE OF TORQABEH, IRAN

Siamak Seyfi, Adel H.Nikjoo, Omid Rezaei & Abolfazl Siyamian

The purpose of this paper is to explore the attitude and perception of local residents toward tourism impacts and development in Torqabeh, one of the most popular tourism resort located in northeast of Iran. Two hundred and fifty households were randomly chosen as a sample of study and data were collected and analyzed with quantitative methods. The results of analysis revealed that local residents generally expressed a positive attitude toward tourism development in Torqabeh. There was evidence that Tourism-related job, community involvement in making decisions about tourism development, community attachment and length of residence are significant determinants of perceived tourism impacts and development. Furthermore, the study reinforces the need for inclusion of local people during future preliminary process of tourism planning in area.

 

THE EFFECTS OF TOURISM DEVELOPMENT TOWARDS LIVELIHOOD SUSTAINABILITY OF THE ORANG ASLI AT THE KG.SG. RUIL, CAMERON HIGHLANDS

 N.H.M. Salleh, R. Othman, S.H.M. Idris, A.H. Jaafar & D.P. Selvaratnam

The main objective of this study is to measure the level of livelihood sustainability of indigenous people at Kg. Sg. Ruil located at a tourist destination of Cameron Highlands, Malaysia.  Several indicators measuring livelihood sustainability as developed by the United Nations Development Program are employed in this study. Among the indicators measured are human assets, financial assets, physical assets, social assets and the disruption or threat to the livelihood of indigenous people (Orang Asli). Face-to-face interviews involving a total of 110 respondents were conducted from October to December 2011. The results indicate that the development of tourism in Cameron Highlands positively impact the indigenous people in terms of increment in their human assets, financial assets, physical and social assets. They also managed to handle the threats that may disrupt their livelihood sustainability.

 

SPATIAL STRUCTURE OF TOURISM: AN APPLICATION OF NEW ECONOMIC GEOGRAPHY IN SELECTED COUNTRIES

Saeed Rasekhi & Sepideh Hosseini

Assessing the spatial structure of tourism in selected countries during the period 1995-2010 is the main purpose of current paper. To reach this, through applying new economic geography, some spatial factors affecting on tourism agglomeration have been evaluated using panel data. The results of model estimation indicated that the economies of scale and the tourism cost are the most important factors in determining tourism agglomeration in selected countries. In addition, growth and development level of countries increase the tourism agglomeration in these countries. Also, based on this study results, maintain credibility in satisfaction of tourists increase the tourism agglomeration. Overall, the results of this study indicate the confirmation of new economic geography factors in determining tourism agglomeration, while previous studies are just considered the economic factors affecting on tourism agglomeration.

 

Research Notes:

 

PRELIMINARY INSIGHTS ON BRITISH TRAVELLERS’ ACCOUNTS OF SICILIAN ORANGES

Eugenio Cianflone, Giuseppa Di Bella & Giacomo Dugo

EC-labelled products, identified by PDO, PGI and TSG tags, are linked to a geographical area and to specific growing/manufacturing methods that guarantee quality and sustain local traditions. These features can promote local products by raising tourists’ interest not only in local food but also in the place of origin of the same and in its history. This note wants to report ongoing research on a facet of cultural tourism that has not so far been studied: British Grand Tourists’ accounts of local quality products. The selected item was the PGI Sicilian orange, whereas the literary evidence was taken from Brydone’s travelogue and from Dennis’ travel book. The result is a description of a PGI product where specialists from Food Science and English Studies work in team to offer a model to be used in cultural tourism.

 

AN OPTIMAL HUB SELECTION ALGORITHM IN MARITIME TRANSPORT SYSTEMS BASED ON THE HUB AND SPOKE MODEL

Konstantinos Chainas

This report presents a heuristic algorithm for the optimal hub selection in a maritime transport system which is based on the hub and spoke model. This model has been successfully tested in other maritime systems such as the USA aviation. Its implementation in the maritime transport and particularly in areas such as the Aegean Sea gave very good results with respect to resource savings, improvement of services and drastic reduction of the total time needed for travelling in favour of tourism and shipping companies.

 

Book Review:

 

Tourism and Sustainable Development: Reconsidering a Concept of Vague Policies

Vikneswaran Nair

 

 

 

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