TOURISMOS: An International Multidisciplinary Refereed Journal of Tourism


 

ISSN: 1790-8418 (print)
ISSN: 1792-6521 (online)

 

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Volume 8, Number 1, 2013

Creative Commons: BY-NC-ND

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THE YOUNG TOURIST GUIDE TO PARADISE: UNDERSTANDING BEHAVIOURAL PATTERNS OF YOUNG BEACH-ORIENTED TOURISTS                       

Paolo Mura & Catheryn Khoo-Lattimore

This paper seeks to advance knowledge of young beach-oriented tourists by employing a qualitative research method. The research was conducted in Ios, on the south of Athens, Greece. The location represented an extremely popular destination for young people from all over the world. After three months of observation and interviews with twenty five young tourists, the findings interestingly show that the young tourists’ patterns of behaviour on holiday were often discussed by them in contrast to the patterns of behaviour in the home environment. This finding has important implications because it further expands our understanding of the relationship between the tourism experience and the leisure experience in the home environment.

 

COMMUNICATION PROBLEMS AMONG TOURISTS AND COMMUNITY FORM THE TOURIST PERSPECTIVE "A CASE STUDY FORM KARAK GOVERNORATE"                             

Mohammad Nayef Alsarayreh & Ahmed Jibreel Al Matarneh

This study aimed at recognizing the problems of communication among the tourists and the local community in Karak Governorate forms the perspective of tourists. It determined the problems that might lead to a fault in the communicative process. This study is an explorative-analytical one, where it adopted the methodology of data collection and analysis to conclude findings.  The researcher distributed 250 questionnaire forms, where he retrieved 220 and excluded 20 forms. This figure represented the population and sample of the study either. From the perspective of tourists to the southern region there were communicative problems among the tourists and community in terms of organizational party, except the existence of tourist police at the tourism sites continuously to protect the tourist from the abuse by community individuals. There were lingual problems among tourists and community besides psychological and social matters. But there were no problem for excuse in case of any mistake by the tourist. The study recommended that such organizational problems should be solved, where the state should increase the figures of tourist to the southern region. The psycho-social problems should find a solution in terms of sensitive and religious aspects which might lead to misunderstanding by community and harsh the feelings of tourists besides the difficulty of building friendship relations with tourists and treat them with respect.

 

COMPARISON OF ATTRACTIVENESS OF TOURIST SITES FOR ECOTOURISM AND MASS TOURISM: THE CASE OF WATERS IN MOUNTAINOUS PROTECTED AREAS          

Josef Navratil, Kamil Picha, Jaroslav Knotek, Tomas Kucera, Jana Navratilova & Josef Rajchard

Evaluation of tourist attractions by different segments on ‘mass-tourism’ – ‘eco-tourism’ continuum for water-enhanced tourist sites in mountain and submontane areas in South Bohemia (Czech Republic) was tested. Students on three different study programmes were chosen as respondents for Q-sort with photos of 48 tourist sites. Principal components factor analysis of respondents sorting revealed three main factors of attractiveness perception: presence of dominant attractiveness, natural landscape versus cultural-historical site, harmony of landscape. Impact of tourist segments was revealed for the first two factors. Hierarchical clustering of cluster analysis was then used to obtain homogenous groups of photos. Nine types were revealed: (a) wetlands; (b) forest springs; (c) historical monuments rather of a marginal character; (d) perspective horizons of various content; (e) technical treatments; (f) historical dominants; (g) waterfalls; (h) alpine (wild) rivers; (i) harmonic landscape. Impact of tourist segments was revealed for clusters (a), (c), (e), (f), and (i).

 

THE COMPARISON OF SECONDARY AND PRIMARY TOURISM DESTINATION IMAGE: SERVING AS A BRIDGE BETWEEN EXPECTATION AND EXPERIENCE AND GUIDING EFFECTIVE MARKETING AND MANAGEMENT STRATEGIES           

Ourania Vitouladiti

The importance of destination image in tourism is undeniable. Both aspects of destination image, secondary and primary, are very important in shaping the overall image. A comparison between them would bridge the tourists’ expectations with experience by revealing the exact deviations from the original perception.  According to the scientific literature there are scant researches that compare, directly, these two dimensions of the image, using a representative sample from first time visitors. Such a comparison  would enrich the limited empirical research on this specific issue. This paper presents the direct  comparison, based on empirical research and on representative sample of British  first time visitors to the island of Corfu . The members of the sample where given two questionnaires,(total 752 questionnaires) one at the arrival and the other just before the departure. Both questionnaires were completed by the same person and this is an additional value of the study. The research revealed the pragmatic dimensions, indicated the priorities for marketing and management actions and suggested through this comparison a new kind of image.

 

THE EFFECTS OF SALES PROMOTION ON POST PROMOTION BEHAVIORS AND BRAND PREFERENCES IN FAST FOOD RESTAURANTS                                                 

Hany Hosny Sayed Abdelhamied

Sales promotions work to stimulate and induce choice of customers in restaurants. However, the benefits of the sales promotion may be offset by undermining sales power and preferences of products being displayed when they are no longer promoted. The sales promotions have been long employed in marketing practices for attracting customers and researched academically, but a clear understanding of the impacts of sales promotion on products’ sales power and preferences post the promotion, has not been clearly obtained. The current study aims to explore the effects of sales promotion on post promotion behavior such as customer loyalty and purchase behavior in fast food in Egypt. Further the study also investigated the products' preferences in fast food restaurants after terminating the promotion period. A semi structured questionnaire has been developed and distributed over patrons in fast food outlets. The empirical results revealed that sales promotion can be very effective marketing techniques in creating traffic in restaurants and affect on quantity purchase. Despite the sales promotion considered a successful strategy to encourage frequent visits to fast food outlets, it affect negatively on products preferences' especially post the promotion.

 

VISITORS’ PERCEPTION OF A TOURISM DESTINATION: THE CASE OF PAMUKKALE

Serkan Bertan & Volkan Altintas

This study's goal is to examine perceptions of tourists visiting the destination Pamukkale (Denizli-Turkey). For this purpose, a field survey has been undertaken in Pamukkale as a thermal tourism center. Surveys were received from 515 participants, but 207 of them were not filled out as required for this survey; thus, the analysis was made of 308 survey forms. Following the analysis of demographic variables of tourists, an assessment was made about perceptions of visitors in the area. One way in which variance analysis was used was to research the effects of age, education, and income status on the visitor attitude regarding Pamukkale as a tourist destination. Research findings reveal that there are significant levels of differences regarding certain visitor attitudes in terms of age, education level, and income level.

 

ATTITUDES TOWARDS TOURISM DEVELOPMENT: RESIDENTS’ PERCEPTIONS IN THE ISLANDS OF LEMNOS AND HYDRA

Efstathios Dimitriadis, Dimitrios Papadopoulos & Despoina Kaltsidou

Many Greek islands, like Crete, Rhodes, Corfu, Santorini and Mykonos , are included among the most popular tourist destinations worldwide. For Greece and especially for its small islands, tourism constitutes a vital factor of development and prosperity. Our study is concentrated on two, not so popular, Greek islands (Hydra and Lemnos) with different characteristics and focuses on residents’ attitudes and perceptions about tourism development. Based on a sample of 400 residents of Hydra and Lemnos, we find that the economic parameters contribute significant on the perceptions’ formation about tourism development. We also find that there is a reduced perception about the negative affect of tourism on society and environment, especially when the income is directly depended from tourism.

 

ANALYSING THE INFLUENCE OF LOW-COST AIRLINES ON TOURISTS' PERCEPTION OF SERVICE QUALITY               

Hossam Samy Ahmed

This paper aims to explore the characteristics of low-cost airlines and evaluate their influence on tourists' perception of service quality. Several aspects related to the low-cost business model are highlighted within this paper and they are all interpreted according to their relationship with tourists' perception of airline service quality. A survey was conducted on a sample of tourists frequently flying on low-cost airlines with an aim to interpret the correlation between factors influencing respondents' perception of different airline service quality elements. The research also dealt with numerous factors affecting the marketing of low-cost airline such as: passenger's nationality, annual income, frequency of air travel, airline service level and air ticket prices. The essential research results confirmed that the price factor has a primary influence on tourists' perception of quality when compared to many other factors attributed to low-cost airline services.

 

INVESTIGATING e-BUSINESS PRACTICES IN TOURISM: A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF THREE COUNTRIES              

Ilias P. Vlachos

This study examined the behaviour of tourist companies in relation to the adoption of e-business technologies and applications. The study aimed to identify groups of companies with homogenous behaviour among three European countries (Greece, Portugal and Norway). Based on data from a European survey, the study employed two-step cluster analysis which revealed 14 clusters of common behaviour (five clusters in Greece, five in Portugal and four in Norway). These clusters were named as: Leaders’ ‘Technology Experts’, ‘Fast Adopters’ ‘Beginners’, ‘Late Adopters’. In Norway, the group ‘Late Adopters’ also included companies characterised as ‘Beginners’ in the other two countries. We suggest further investigation among European countries in order to reveal more groups of similar behaviour toward e-business adoption.

 

ESTIMATING TOURISM DEMAND: THE CASE OF FYROM          

Biljana Petrevska

The paper underlines the importance of applying forecasting methods in estimation of tourism trends. In this respect, two quantitative methods were used: (1) the method of exponential smoothing, through two of its variants: Double Exponential Smoothing and the Holt-Winters Smoothing; and (2) the Box-Jenkins methodology, through several alternative specifications. The result of the research is a medium-term estimation of foreign tourism demand for destinations in the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia (FYROM) by the end of 2014. Despite the fact that all applied methods are not capable of explaining the driving factors behind the results, the estimated values can serve as a base for identifying measures and activities necessary for creating comprehensive tourism policy.

 

ECOTOURISM AT THE HEART OF DEVELOPMENT STRATEGIES: ELEMENTS FOR REFLECTIONS BASED ON THE CARIBBEAN EXPERIENCE                                                                        

Olivier Dehoorne & Corina Tatar

The paper offers a reflection on the tourism issues and development strategies relating to Caribbean destinations, and more particularly, island destinations.  When faced with intense competition from the popular destinations around the region, the smaller islands have had to reaffirm their market position. Mass tourism development models have not created the expected knock-on effects for these territories of limited size and vulnerable resources. Any wish for alternative tourism practices, which for this region essentially revolve around the term ecotourism, falls under the scope of badly coordinated tourism development and its ensuing over-concentration of infrastructures, land conflicts and policies of entrenchment, etc.  Sharing tourism revenue and accessing resources are key elements to the debate. Development strategies in relation to alternative tourism practices are better able to meet the expectations of host territories.

 

IMPACTS OF TOURISM PROJECTS OF DEVELOPMENT AGENCIES ON SOCIAL PEACE IN TURKEY     

Naci Polat

Tourism and peace are two important concepts which are influencing each other. These concepts are mostly tackled separately at tourism and peace platforms which are isolated. Since international security issues gain more importance, significance of both concepts are more underlined. Tourism is one of the most employment generator sectors of the world economy. Conflicts and tensions in different regions of the world could diminish number of tourists and tourism workers. Even if tourism can rehabilitate itself rapidly after such problems, scientific researches’ are getting more interested in crises management (Laws, E., B. Prideaux and K. Chon, 2007). In this study, Do’s and Don’ts of tourism projects in less developed regions will be extensively searched with qualitative methods, not after such crises but during the social crises and problems. At the main focus of this study, tourism projects of South Eastern and Eastern Regions of Turkey with high economical and social problem zones will be evaluated. These projects will be especially evaluated in the terms of establishing social peace. Results which are delivered with this study will be used for recommendations for the other problem zones of the world.

 

ANALYSIS OF RURAL TOURISM WEBSITES: THE CASE OF CENTRAL MACEDONIA                     

Chris A. Vassiliadis, Anestis Fotiadis & Linda A. Piper

Our study of rural tourism enterprises in Central Macedonia uses the functional and technical factors posted on Greek official websites during the year 2009 to explore typical guest expectations based on those posted factors and the perceptions of enterprise owners and/or managers in light of those factors. The evaluation of the hotel 74 rural enterprises in Central Macedonia was based on the examination of the importance of functional and technical quality in rural tourism services. The analysis includes all the rural recorded hotel units in Central Macedonia of Greece. We build our research hypothesis upon the literature and we make the following hypothesis: the functional and technical dimensions can also be applied as important factors for the level of quality the customer perceives from a related web site.   Our study contributes to the inference of objective conclusions of the actual quality of the rural tourism hotel units in Central Macedonia.

 

WHEN CAN THE SLEEPING ASIAN TIGER AWAKEN? INTERNATIONAL TOURISM DEVELOPMENT IN MALAYSIA      

Xing Huibin & Azizan Marzuki

The international market is very important for Malaysia’s tourism industry. In the World Tourism rankings from 2005 till 2010, Malaysia was always ranked in the second place for international tourist arrivals in Asia and the Pacific region. However, in terms of the average tourism consumption of international tourist, Malaysia was in the last place. Nevertheless, if the average tourism consumption in Malaysia reaches 1862.20 USD, Malaysia could lead other nations in Asia and the Pacific region. Based on the experiences of international tourism development in Australia, India and Macao, this paper constructs a development pattern of international tourism for Malaysia based on existing conditions and the foundation of international tourism development.

 

ECOTOURISM DEVELOPMENT STRATEGIES FOR CARIBBEAN TOURISM DESTINATIONS

Olivier Dehoorne & Corina Tatar

The paper offers a reflection on tourism issues and development strategies relating to Caribbean destinations, and more particularly, insular destinations.  When faced with intense competition from popular destinations around the region, the smaller islands have had to reaffirm their market position.  Mass tourism development models have not created the expected knock-on effects for these territories of limited size and vulnerable resources. Any wish for alternative tourism practices, which for this region essentially revolve around the term ecotourism, falls under the scope of badly coordinated tourism development and its ensuing over-concentration of infrastructures, land conflicts and policies of entrenchment, etc.  Sharing tourism revenue and accessing resources are key elements to the debate. Development strategies in relation to alternative tourism practices are better able to meet the expectations of host territories.

 

TOURISM, TERRORISM AND NATION-STATE: SEVIL SOMNEZ RECONSIDERED            

Korstanje Maximiliano E.

Similarly to the assumption that politics are war by other means, we argue in this conceptual paper that tourism and terrorism are linked and sometimes tourism is terrorism by other means. In sharp contrast to the studies that focuses on terrorism as the main threat of West, we try to explore the historical roots of terrorism from an all-encompassed manner. We therefore, exert a criticism to the Sevil Somnez/s text and provide with an alternative view for policy-makers, scholars and students interested in these types of issues.

 

ROLE CLARITY, SUPERVISORY SUPPORT, PEER SUPPORT, AND WORK ENGAGEMENT OF CUSTOMER-CONTACT EMPLOYEES IN HOTELS: A FUTURE RESEARCH AGENDA       

Choo Ling Suan & Aizzat Mohd. Nasurdin

In light of competitive pressures, organizations particularly service providers, need to unleash the talents of their employees in order to accomplish peak performance. Recent efforts have highlighted the importance of work engagement which focuses on human strengths and optimal functioning.  Despite its potential beneficial outcomes, research on the prevalence and antecedents of work engagement has remained scarce. Therefore, the objective of this paper is to develop a model linking role clarity, supervisory support, and peer support as predictors of work engagement. A review of the literature to support the proposed model among customer-contact employees within the Malaysian hotel industry is provided.

  

Book Reviews:

 

Slow Travel and Tourism                

Maximiliano E. Korstanje

 

Tourists Signs and the City: The Semiotics of Culture in an Urban Landscape                  

Julian Zarb

 

Key Concepts in Event Management      

Nicholas Wise

 

 

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