TOURISMOS: An International Multidisciplinary Refereed Journal of Tourism


ISSN: 1790-8418 (print)
ISSN: 1792-6521 (online)





Volume 7, Number 2, 2012

Creative Commons: BY-NC-ND

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Werner Gronau, Andreas Kagermeier, Carsten Muller & Christine M. Scherl

There is a rich variety of customer satisfaction evaluation techniques, nevertheless rarely other approaches than the attribute-orientated ones are used. Therefore the article gives a short overview on existing alternatives and their specifics in the first part. The second part focuses on an evaluation of those methods in a practical way, by applying a bunch of methods in the context of leisure research. Based on an industrial heritage site, attribute-orientated-, incident-orientated approaches as well as silent hooping techniques are applied, in order to research their specifics and to evaluate the data provide by each methodological approach. Specific opportunities and threats are elaborated for each method in the context of leisure research.



Giuli Liebman Parrinello

Tourism studies, generally considered multi-, inter- and even post-disciplinary, has not yet embraced neuroscience, despite the fact that the latter has been extending its domain in the last decades,  opening up to human consciousness, as well as to social issues, arts and the humanities. This paper argues that it is also necessary for tourism social studies to take into account recent developments in this field. Bearing in mind a broad conceptualization of the tourist experience, an attempt will be made to indicate formulations in neuroscience which potentially cast new light on various aspects of tourism. The following points are evidenced: post-cartesian embodiment (seemingly already a common background); so-called qualia, linked to phenomenological experience; the issue of the ‘extended mind’; the discovery of mirror neurons; neuroethics, which can clearly be seen in relation to the ethics of tourism. In conclusion, the recent popularization of neuroscience through brain imaging is briefly explored.



Jennifer Kim Lian Chan

The present paper presents qualitative empirical evidence that addresses why internet usage/adoption is low and how it can be improved in small and medium-sized hotels in Malaysia. It explores the key barriers to and influencing factors of internet adoption in a sample of 25 Malaysian small and medium-sized hotels based on a theoretical framework of the organisational innovation and resource-based view theories. Key barriers to internet usage include owner/operator characteristics, cost and investment, firm size and internet access. Operator/user’s assessment of perceived resource readiness, perceived potential utility and perceived performance seem to be the key influencing factors. The proposed holistic internet adoption framework also serves as a novel tool and a useful guide for individuals and ICT policymakers for improving and implementing e-commerce/internet. This paper adds to the internet adoption and decision literature and advances the theoretical and practical understanding of internet usage in small and medium-sized hotels, but requires further validation in other countries.



Ruya Ehtiyar, Volkan Altintas, Aylin Aktas Alan & Seher Oren

The latest place formation of Antalya and as regards of the traditional city development has started in 1950s. Today the rapid change of Antalya is the biggest one of Turkish history of which definition has become gradually difficult. This change has occurred to a large extent without scientific and democratic plan. Problems like instability of social structure, migration, deviating urbanization, housing built without acquiring the land rights, structural and environmental pollution have seen in Antalya so many serious precautions should be taken to realize the place formation of city accurately. In this research, it is aimed at solving the problems of the place formation of Antalya and as regards of the changes in traditional identification that have been detected by all components in the city and city side with its functional structure. In addition, identifying the criteria, which will be effective on explaining and existence of urban identity, could develop.



Anna Farmaki

The purpose of this research is to identify and compare the projected and perceived images of Cyprus following repositioning.  Secondary sources such as brochures, advertising campaigns and tourism websites were used to identify the projected image and a survey was performed to measure the perceived image.  Questionnaires including closed and open-ended questions evaluating destination attributes and perceived image were disseminated to 393 British tourists.  The research identified the differences between the two concepts, revealing that the marketing strategy of Cyprus has not managed to enhance destination image.  The paper concludes with recommendations on marketing Cyprus tourism.



Meltem Caber, A. Ak?n Aksu & Tahir Albayrak

In international tourism and travel literature, importance of the business-to-business (B-to-B) relationships and the role of e-CRM implementations are widely ignored. However, sophisticated relationships among to wholesalers (tour operators) and retailers (travel agencies) quite deserve to further interests of the academicians. Therefore, proposed model of this research was generated to examine to B-to-B electronic commerce environment in travel sector and the roles of e-CRM features in wholesaler-retailer relationships. Structural equation modeling results indicated that satisfaction of the retailer travel agencies’ sales staff was positively and significantly effected by the website quality of the wholesaler tour operators’ extranet system. The results indicated any statistically significant relationship between customer services of the tour operator and satisfaction of the travel agencies’ sales staff.



Aikaterini Gkoltsiou & Theano S. Terkenli

This article presents a new methodological framework for assessing the structure of coastal tourist landscapes, bearing the potential for development, in order to adjust to all sorts of other tourist landscapes. Through a combined application of landscape indicators, remote sensing and landscape character assessment methods, the proposed framework aims at the measurement of attributes of the state of a landscape. The paper, accordingly, proceeds from a) an extensive literature review, based on the elements and aspects of tourism and landscape that comprise the tourist landscape and on qualitative and quantitative landscape assessment methods, to b) the presentation of the proposed methodological framework and set of indicators and c) ends with a series of conclusions on the applicability of the proposed methodological framework, in a tourist landscape context.


WOMEN IN HOTEL MANAGEMENT IN ZIMBABWE: CAREER AMBITIONS, PROGRESSION TACTICS, AND CAREER CHALLENGES                                                                                                   

Muchazondida Mkono

Research investigates career ambitions, progression tactics and challenges among female hotel managers in Zimbabwean hotels. Data was gathered through a questionnaire survey of 84 female hotel managers in Zimbabwe. Most female hotel managers in Zimbabwe aspire to attain top management positions. However, they face several challenges in their attempts to achieve their career goals. To enhance their career progression prospects, there is a clear need to adopt more aggressive tactics, especially with regard to undertaking further study. For the industry there is need to institutionalise policies and structures that are more “woman-friendly”. However, cultural norms and values pose a major challenge for the change process. Further, women should take responsibility for their own careers. They could strengthen their promotion chances by undertaking postgraduate business leadership courses at esteemed institutions, and by being more assertive of their capabilities. The research focuses on Zimbabwean female hotel managers, whose career ambitions, progression tactics and challenges have not yet been documented.



Dilek Kekec Morkoc & Lutfi Atay

Marketing activities to provide competition advantage, particularly electronic marketing have been a very important need for hotel operations. Through electronic marketing tools, hotel operations can have access to more mass of people faster with less cost. Electronic marketing of hotels  in Turkey were not analyzed enought and in this survey, it was questioned how much hotel establishments in Turkey benefited from electronic marketing practices and how much they could keep up with the changes in electronic marketing. With this purposes, it was intended to determine the level of electronic marketing practices and electronic marketing elements via their own website, according to the types and classes of hotel establishments. The method of content analysis was used. According to data of collected from  hotels’ web sites in Marmara  Region, %96.8 of hotels are covered by search engines and five star hotels & chain hotels were found more dynamic and were allowing the practices for electronic marketing.


EXAMINATION OF ECONOMIC GROWTH AND TOURISM IN BARBADOS: TESTING THE SUPPLY-SIDE HYPOTHESIS                                                                                

Mahalia Jackman & Troy Lorde

The goal of this study is to examine the supply side hypothesis of tourism demand, that is, to answer the question: Does economic growth in Barbados spur tourism growth.  Results suggest that there is a long-run relationship between real GDP in Barbados and tourist arrivals.  Specifically, we find that a 1% expansion in real GDP is associated with a 1.2% increase in tourist arrivals.  Further, our Granger causality test suggests that the supply-side hypothesis is valid for Barbados.


ACCESSIBILITY VERSUS ADVERTISING FOR MOUNTAIN TOURISM: THE CASE OF NAFPAKTIA                                                                  

Evgenia Bitsani & Androniki Kavoura

The paper examines the factors influencing visitors’ preferences in the mountainous area of Nafpaktia, Greece and the implications for an advertising communication programme. The study is a survey and 500 respondents filled in a questionnaire. It describes visitors’ characteristics, the research and the estimation of the number of visitors of the area, the description of the reasons of visiting the area, the duration of their stay and the research and analysis of their needs and expectations. The empirical work succeeds in making a theoretical and practical contribution to the way sustainable development presented for Nafpaktia, Greece can consist of a typical recourse for mountainous disadvantageous areas of the Mediterranean. Tourism management in mountainous regions may concentrate on the ways of attracting the visitors and mainly on accessibility, tourism infrastructure, preservation of natural beauty contrary to the hypothesis made that informative advertising promotional material locally, nationally and internationally is a necessity.



Bharath M. Josiam, Charles R. Foster & Gauri Bahulkar

Foodservice operators are being mandated to provide nutritional information (NI) on their menus to enable diners to make informed choices. However, there is little research on who would utilize NI on menus. This study utilizes Cluster Analysis to segment and profile diners at full-service restaurants that need, and would utilize NI on menus in full-service restaurants in the USA. Cluster Analysis identified two distinct segments - Health Cognizants and Fast-Lane Foodies. The Health Cognizant segment, has positive attitudes towards NI, feels the need for NI, and would utilize it to make dining decisions. They tend to be females, those aged 35 to 65, and those belonging to the higher income and college educated strata. This segment already practices a healthy lifestyle and employs various healthful strategies while making dining decisions. The Fast-Lane Foodies are not particularly concerned about NI on menus. Implications are provided.



Perunjodi Naidoo, Prabha Ramseook-Munhurrun & Ramesh Durbarry

Brand image is a prominent marketing tool for destination marketers.  A strong brand image implies having an upper-hand over competitors and thus preventing tourists from shifting their purchase intentions to other destinations.  This paper examines the brand image attributes of a small island developing state. It also determines the gap between tourists’ expected and perceived brand image attributes. The study uses a focus group to guide the design of the questionnaire. Using factor analysis, the results indicate that the attributes performances exceed expectations, reinforcing the positive brand image of Mauritius. It is also found that the destination’s attractiveness, up-market products, tourist attractions and the tropical setting were among the key factors in determining the brand image of the destination.  The study also suggests that over-promising promotional campaigns may affect the brand image of small island developing destinations.



Marilena Papageorgiou & Marie-Noelle Duquenne

The present paper seeks to confirm that spa tourism is now in a period of transition following extensive, questionnaire-based fieldwork inGreece’s prime spa destinations. The research sought primarily to profile the different types of spa visitors today, and secondarily to identify the visitor-type who will predominate in the years ahead. The paper’s ultimate aim is to use its conclusions and the trends it uncovers to draw up general guidelines for contemporary spatial planning in spa tourism destinations in accordance with contemporary views and needs.



Tarek Sayed Abdel Azim

This research aims to follow up the career progress of graduates of the faculty of tourism and hotels, Minia University. In addition, it seeks to investigate if there is a gape between the tourism education and the work market according to the experience of graduates. A survey was conducted of a convenient sample of graduates from the three different departments (tourist studies, hotel studies and tour guidance) of the faculty of tourism, Minia University. The results revealed that 76% of graduates are employed in general, and the majority (78%) among them is employed in the hospitality and tourism sector. Although a great number of graduates join the sector shortly after graduation, half of them faced difficulties in work which are represented in the most cases in the incompetence of foreign languages followed by the shortage of experience.   More males than females intend to leave their work in the tourism field.


FinancialS menu at EUROPEAN RESTAURANTS                          

Giuseppe Torluccio

This paper highlights the main profiles of SME’s (small and medium enterprises) financial structures, focusing particularly on hospitality and tourism. A sample of European hotels and restaurants is empirically investigated. Financial and accounting statements are analysed through comparisons between several European countries. Tourism is known to experience two different management issues: real estate and industry-specific management. Although they are very similar, tourism property management is strongly related to seasonality. The business cycle impact on financial structure is significant, and so does the effect on risk. Therefore, this research also investigates both short and long-term financing. The former needs specific control of cash inflows and outflows. It is necessary to deal with specific financial needs to set up specialized financing facilities. Seasonality also impacts on the financing cycle. Operation management is smoothed during overloaded periods by using various strategies. Additionally, cash flow management benefits from better financial forecasts.


Reflections on tourism, development and sustainability                                      

Rocio Serrano-Barquin, Carolina Serrano-Barquin, Alexandre Panosso-Netto, Marcelino Castillo-Nechar & Gandhi Gonzalez-Guerrero

This paper presents some reflections on the need to contribute to the construction of alternative paradigms for the relationship between tourism, local development and sustainability. These paradigms need to be constructed from an environmental perspective that integrates natural and cultural (social, political and economic) factors rather than analyzing them separately. The paper also exposes the need to include different sectors of society, communities and regions that have so far remained relegated, via community participation, preservation of the environmental, cultures, local identity and autonomy, and diversification of economic activities. Finally the paper presents four categories of analysis that incorporate the principles of sustainable development and responsible tourism: the hommoecosystem, rational-intuitive use, harmonious and ethical tourism, and integrative participatory planning.



Kleanthis Katsaros & Athanasios Tsirikas

Organizational change is an intrinsic attribute of nature that provokes emotional and psychological effects. However, today there is a rising concern about the pace, frequency and content of change. Consequently, employees’ tolerance-of-ambiguity rises as a critical competitive advantage that facilitates organizations to react quickly and change successfully. The paper examines managers’ emotional and cognitive attitudes in the workplace and their influence in tolerance of change ambiguity. The research sample consists of 180 Greek hotel managers. The results of the principal components analysis indicate that three factors characterize managers’ emotions, namely pleasure, arousal and dominance; and two their involvement respectively, namely importance and interest. Further, regression results illustrate the influence of dominance, importance, job satisfaction and organizational commitment in managers’ tolerance-of-ambiguity. Concluding, the paper suggests certain policies for increasing managers’ tolerance-of-ambiguity and thus, their performance during change.



 Hulusi Dogan, Engin Unguren & Suleyman Barutcu

TThe purpose of the present study is to investigate and compare the potential and the satisfaction levels of Russian and German tourists visiting Alanya in creating a sustainable competitive advantage in Alanya destination. It is a common point that Russian and Germans are two nationalities most frequently visited Alanya, town of Antalya in Turkey. Moreover, every year many Russians and Germans decide to live in Alanya. So we wonder that how global crisis effected Turkish tourism industry, especially Alanya, and Russian and German preferences. The findings from the present study help decision takers to create new marketing strategies for Russian and German tourists.


arguments in favor of Taxing Tourism: The Lanzarote case study  

Boyra Josep, Pazienza Pasquale & Vila Mar

This work discuss the theoretical foundation for the introduction of a taxation mechanism capable of collecting the necessary and indispensable financial resources to carry out public policies aimed at planning and managing tourism development. The research focus on some dynamics observable in Lanzarote (Spain), where different aspects and impacts of tourism development are identified and analyzed to demonstrate the existence of external costs. The ascertainment of external costs in Lanzarote leads the research to examine the theory of the “rent capture” as Hartwick proposes to reach some conclusions as the use of tax revenues for the enlargement of the carrying capacity of physical facilities or the funding of research for improving destination management strategies. The originality of this article is to delve into the theoretical justification for the implementation of a taxation mechanism at tourism destinations.



Korstanje Maximiliano Emanuel

Development and sustainability are terms under a hot debate in anthropology academy today and for a long time more. For one hand, the anthropology for development will argue that societies are located in a continuum in search for rationalization and social evolution; for the other hand, neo-Marxist anthropologists (known as well as anthropology of development) will emphasize the idea that some countries monopolize a major grade of capital with the aim to dominate politically to others weaker counties. By utilizing the ideology in educating undeveloped countries for an efficient economic resources administration, First World deploys a combination of financial assistance and ideological discourses enrooted in the paradigm of development, heritage, cultural tourism and sustainability to keep the control in a changing world. Likewise, the development not only is a troublesome concept -in part very difficult to grasp- but also comprises a mechanism to create a bridge between material exploitation and human’s necessities. The present paper insists in the importance of development critical in these types of issues.


CHANGES ON CAPITAL STRUCTURE OF THE FIRMS ON THE OCCASION CRISIS AND SITUATION OF TOURISM COMPANIES TRADED ON ISE                                                                               

Dogan Kutukiz, M. Akif Oncu & Ahmet Akcan

The capital structures of the enterprises and the factors that affect these structures have been dealt with extensively in literature. The experimental studies of Modigliani-Miller conducted within the context of developed countries’ economic and institutional structures showed that capital structure does not affect the enterprise value. On the other hand, other studies revealed that the changes in the market affected the enterprises’ finance structure and their finance preferences. In this study, the factors that determine the structure of the tourism enterprises are studied in an environment where market deficiencies abound. The study also looks at the changes that are caused by these factors especially during the crisis of during crisis period of 1998 – 2006.


Volga River as cultural-Aesthetic topos of tourism and travelling                           

Olga Lysikova

Today the role of cultural heritage in the process of creation of the images of national identity becomes the sphere of intent research interest. In the focus of this interest there are the following matters: participation of tourists in the processes of globalization and cultural exchange. Touristic world is structured according to aesthetic criteria. In the pictures of the artists of the XIX century who took off to travel down Volga, to observe and to work in the open air we can trace artistic evolution of landscape painting. The largest European river is a spatial object regularly recalled in academic and artistic discourses, which is also scenery and a place of observation for many generations of aborigines and tourists. Volga River serves a certain highlighter of construction of national identity, symbolizes historical succession of cultural heritage, is a cultural-aesthetic topos of tourism and travelling filled with personal images.



Aimilia Voulvouli

This essay discusses the cultural construction of the Namibian landscape by tourism advertising material, treating landscape photography as a language which can be analysed through signs. Nevertheless, since signs require a consensus of communication, a contextualisation of the pictures will also be mada. Therefore, bellow I will attempt firstly, to discuss the theoretical context in which the pictures will be analyzed, secondly, to present the geographical context in which the pictures were born and thirdly to discuss the pictures as signs by locating the points de capiton within them.


Tourism Planning and Policy in Selected Mountainous Areas of Greece      

Vlami Aimilia, Tsamos George & Zacharatos Gerassimos

Mountains occupy approximately one/fifth of the total surface of the earth and have been progressively transformed into important tourist destinations. Many developed countries have traced and implemented remarkable state interventions to promote tourism development in their mountain areas. State planning, fundamentally, intervenes in a compensating and balancing way, creating the necessary terms and conditions for the smooth formation of the necessary tourist capital at national, regional and local level. This paper evaluates the effectiveness of the state tourism policy in selected mountain prefectures of Greece (Ioannina, Evritania and Kastoria), according to the mountain zone typology used by UNEP-WCMC. The evaluation of the three entirely mountain prefectures according to selected aspects of the tourism policy implemented and the hotel evolutionary geographical distribution highlights a policy gap as regards tourism development in the Greek mountain areas; such tourism development has been progressively incorporated in the general regionalisation policy adopted of Greek tourism.



Lorant David

The results presented in this research note are our first attempt to measure the competitiveness of regions. Having compared the current results to the previous studies of competitiveness, we can say that Hungary’s second most important tourist destination is more affected than is justified by the situation of in-country tourism competitiveness. Consequently a different tourism development strategy should be adopted by the decision-makers. While in Budapest and Central Danube Tourism Region, in some cases – taking into consideration the conservation of environmental values - the improvements in many areas may still be green-field and new investments, as opposed to Lake Balaton Tourism Region, where primarily the development of the existing infrastructure and quality improvement are the main focus. With regard to the first region mentioned above, for some areas it may be more desirable to increase the volume of tourists. For the Lake Balaton Tourism Region a quality development program, of current services, is needed.


SUSTAINABILITY OF YOUTH TOURISTS IN EVENT TOURISM: THE MALAYSIAN EXPERIENCES                                                                  

Habibah Ahmad, Hamzah Jusoh & Noor Alyanie Nor Azazi

Youth tourists are becoming more influential as one of the market potentials in both developed and developing countries. Besides their conventional characters of being individuals, travels with tight budget and preferred non guided tours or on backpackers, youth tourists also play significant roles in event tourism which are more specific in term of schedules and themes. However, youth sustainability of event tourism is hardly discussed in tourism studies in Malaysia. Based on a case study of Visit Malaysia Year 2007 and a convenient sampling of 130 respondents, this article draws the perspective of youth tourists in event tourism. The findings showed that the clarity of youth tourists in event tourism, form of participation and event suitability act as the mediating factors that encouraged youths’ participation in event tourism.  Sustainability of youth tourists in event tourism also depends on the promotional campaigns and knowing the youth tourists’ desires and capabilities.


Book Reviews:


THE TOURIST GAZE 3.0                                                                

Antonio Miguel Nogues-Pedregal


PROJECT MANAGEMENT                                                                             

Ana Jovicic


The Challenges of Managing Tourism (Izazovi upravljanja turizmom)                         

Damir Demonja


Tourism and Sustainable Development: Reconsidering a Concept of Vague Policies                                                          

Vikneswaran Nair


The Study of Tourism: foundations from psychology

Amir Shani




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