TOURISMOS: An International Multidisciplinary Refereed Journal of Tourism
Volume 7, Number 1, 2012
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THE PACKAGED TOURIST: A JAPANESE AND AMERICAN PERSPECTIVE
by Daniel L. Spears & Mark S. Rosenbaum
Japan Travel Bureau recently reported that 48.7% of Japanese overseas travellers, in 2008, were part of a packaged tour, while 47.7% arranged their own travel. Interestingly, very little is actually known regarding demographic and consumption differences between Japanese packaged and independent tourists, especially regarding their shopping behaviors, or how Japanese -package tourists differ from another segment, such as packaged tourists from America. The objective of this article is to address this chasm by exploring demographic and consumption differences between, and among, Japanese and American packaged and non-packaged tourists who are vacationing in Honolulu, Hawaii. The sample includes 198 and 127 Japanese independent and packaged tourists, respectively, as well as 383 and 76 American independent and packaged tourists, respectively .
TOURISM, CULTURAL HERITAGE AND E-SERVICES: USING FOCUS GROUPS TO ASSESS CONSUMER PREFERENCES
by Wadim Strielkowski, Patrizia Riganti & Jing Wang
This paper discusses the use of in-depth focus groups to assess residents, tourists and other stakeholders’ preferences for e-services that would enhance access to cultural heritage in Amsterdam, Leipzig, and Genoa. Several e-services are mentioned, and in particular the integration of e-services in these cities is highlighted. The way this integration takes place very much relates to the maturity of each city in terms of cultural tourism, and information and communication technology (ICT). Our results show that the need for tailored information (profiling), interactive maps (geospatial dimension), booking service “one-stop shops”, and consumer-generated content were all common in the three cities. In some cities the focus groups expressed a need for various forms of e-governance. Mobile devices and navigation systems were also high on the agenda in the more ICT-advanced cities .
EXPLORING INDIAN TOURISTS’ MOTIVATION AND PERCEPTION OF BANGKOK
by Raktida Siri, Lisa Kennon, Bharath Josiam & Daniel Spears
Indians increasingly travel to foreign countries in a large number every year. To date, there are no studies focusing on this group of tourists. This study thus investigates the Indian tourists’ motivation and perception of Bangkok, Thailand. The study shows that both push and pull factors stimulate these Indians to travel. The most important motivations are to have fun, followed by to enjoy the beautiful environment, scenery, and beaches. Based on 20 motivations, four core typologies of Indian tourists are found: Novelty Seeking, Stress Busting/Fun, Achievement, and Family Oriented/Education. Family and/or friends and the Internet are perceived by Indian tourists as important sources in trip decision making .
EXPLORING TOURISTS’ PERCEPTION: THE CASE OF BANGLADESH
Muhammad Sabbir Rahman
The purpose of this research is to test the tourist’s perception in the choice of selection a destination under the perspective of Bangladeshi tourism environment. The survey instrument was employed by using convenience sampling procedure on 250 tourists from significant tourist’s destination places from Bangladesh. Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) followed by Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was used to test the key influential attributes. Apart from that structural equation model was also used to test the hypothesis of this study. The result shows that most of the tourists perceived that selection of a destination highly depend on destination brand image, internet adoption followed by customer’s satisfaction. This research will assist the operators of tourism industry in Bangladesh to understand the influential factors which are influencing tourist’s perception to choose a destination that is unexplored previously by the past researchers .
LOCALLY AND SOCIALLY EMBEDDED tourism CLUSTERS IN RURAL GREECE
Maria Partalidou & Stavriani Koutsou
Creating a local identity through
clustering of attractions, services and products in a region seems to be
the contemporary answer in maintaining economic and social viability.
Despite the growing interest in tourism clusters, it is still a field that
remains unexplored especially in rural areas which have additional
drawbacks to entrepreneurship. In this paper we will focus on the
development of tourism clusters within the framework of Community
Initiative LEADER+ in rural areas in
?nvest?gat?ng hotel employee ?nvolvement ?n strateg?c human resources management
Rana Ozen Kutanis, Muammer Mesci, Istemi Comlekci & Oznur Sahin
The aim of this study is to investigating participation levels of hotel employees in the dimensions of strategic human resources management. To achieve this, we present to what extent hotel employees participated in the dimensions of strategic human resources management. The success of hotel business in undertaking the wishes and expectations of its employees will motivate them and will contribute to the managers and companies. The research data was derived from employees working full-time shifts in a five-star hotel. At the end of the research, it’s stated that most of the employees participated in the dimensions of strategic human resources management. However, it’s determined that most of the employees had a middle level participation according to the statements that produce the dimensions strategic human resources management. As a result, it’s deduced that employees in hotels care about the dimensions of strategic human resources management and participate in them. The fact that the data was gathered from only one five-star hotel is an important constraint of this study.
investments and turnover: pool data analysis for THE romanian hotel and restaurant sector
Surugiu Camelia, Surugiu Marius-Razvan, Frent Cristi & Dinca Ana-Irina
Investments represent a powerful tool for an enterprise to stimulate economic performance, productivity, and competitiveness in the medium and long term. This paper analyses the relationship between investment and the turnover of active enterprises operating in the hotel and restaurant sector through the construction of a pool data equation created for the eight development regions in Romania (North-East, South-East, South-Muntenia, South-West Oltenia, North-West, West, Centre, Bucharest-Ilfov, for the period 1999-2007. The Romanian tourism sector is still perceived as fragile, even after 20 years of turning into a market economy, as incomplete transition affects the development of various economic sectors and thus also of tourism. The important question is how strongly investment in the hotel and restaurant sector impacts regional development.
The impact of macroeconomic country-specific factors on international expansion of US hotel chains
Ljudevit Pranic, Sonia Ketkar & Wesley S. Roehl
While our understanding of the issues surrounding foreign direct investment (FDI) in tourism is limited (Endo, 2006), even less is known about the role of FDI and other macroeconomic variables in the lodging segment of the tourism industry. This research fills this gap by examining the population of U.S. hotels with international operations with respect to FDI, Market Interconnectedness and Tourist Flows in foreign countries. Additional examination is performed separately on high-income and middle-income countries. Study findings suggest that Market Interconnectedness is highly significantly and positively correlated with presence of U.S. hotel firms abroad, while FDI and Tourist Flows are not. However, results somewhat differ with respect to high-income and middle-income countries.
ASSESSING TOURIST INFRASTRUCTURE IN THE ISLAND OF SKIATHOS: THE VIEWS OF LOCALS AND VISITORS
Stylianos Tampakis, Evangelos Manolas & Vasileios Tampakis
understanding the role of social media in destination marketing
Wendy Lange-Faria & Statia Elliot
Social media in the context of destination marketing is a growing area of study, and judging by the exponential growth in social networks over recent years, the demand for research will continue. This paper provides a review of the literature to date on social media use by destination marketing organizations (DMOs). A growing number of travellers are influenced by user generated content, presenting a number of challenges and opportunities to DMOs. This review seeks to synthesize existing research, theories and concepts, in order to understand how social media applications are being used by tourism authorities, and to provide a bridge from past research to future success.
INTEGRATING SUSTAINABILITY INTO TOUR OPERATOR BUSINESS: AN INNOVATIVE APPROACH IN SUSTAINABLE TOURISM
Ghada Khairat & Azza Maher
Tour operators are the key elements in the tourism system; they are the link between the tourist and the destination. As a result, tour operators are in many ways the key to achieving more sustainable forms of tourism. This study aims at examining the actual experience of tour operators who adopted sustainability practices in their business with the purposes of: 1) Identifying the priority implementation areas; 2) Determining the most important motivators which encourage tour operators to adopt more responsible strategies; 3) Exploring the outcomes and benefits as well as the major obstacles and barriers that deter the integration of sustainability strategies in the tour operator business. For this study 32 tour operators have been investigated. In addition, in-depth interviews with destination stakeholders have been conducted to reflect their experience.
THE USA’S INTERNATIONAL TRAVEL DEMAND AND ECONOMIC GROWTH IN TURKEY: A CAUSALITY ANALYSIS
This paper investigates the relationship between the
fare tale orienteering: Developing art word by letterboxing event
Special events have grown in the tourism industry as indispensable product alternatives to many urban destinations. This case study describes a unique Art Word by Letterboxing – event, which was organized in Pori, Finland. The event was fruitful in terms of adventure tourist products and introduces opportunities art word workshops and is an example special tourist event. This study presents a concrete letterboxing application and describes comprehensively the contents and goals of Art Word by letterboxing -event. The study is empirical case study, which passed on 12 participators evaluation. Most outstanding result is the social interaction with word of art amateur in group conversation bring up ideas for create this kind of events for new places example inside of school or middle of forest. Users find the event refreshing, motivating and highly suitable as a concluding event for their art word workshops. Experiences and feelings inspire to embark on future adventures.
international demand for nature-based tourism in costa rica: socio-demographic & travel indicators
Daniel Villalobos-Cespedes, Emilio Galdeano-Gomez & Alfredo Tolon-Becerra
Demand for tourist activities related to natural spaces and wildlife has increased over recent years. This paper analyses the influence of socio-demographic and travel indicators on international demand for such tourism in Costa Rica. Using discrete choice models, a range of principal activities is studied: hiking, visits to volcanoes, observation of flora and fauna, bird-watching and canoeing. The results show the favourable influence on demand of variables such as family, travel with partners and country of origin, providing orientation for policies and strategies of the nature-based tourism in Costa Rica, as well as indicators for other countries interested in developing this sector.
THE MYSTERY DEMYSTIFIED: A MYSTERY SHOPPER'S EXPERIENCE WITH HOTEL SERVICES AND PRODUCTS
Tamer Mohamed Atef
Hospitality operations depend greatly on measuring the quality of services and products delivered to their customers, several methods are used, but mystery shopping is the most preferred. Mystery shopping is a process that uses industry professionals to evaluate the products and services offered by hospitality operations through living the actual guest experience and engaging in normal guest - staff encounters and interactions, leading to final evaluations to be reported to concerned management in order to improve the overall performance. The aim of the study was to practically show how mystery shopping is carried out, documented, and used as basis for continuous improvement, in order to achieve this aim the following objectives were acknowledged: a) to show how customers experience and evaluate hotel services and products; b) to propose a mystery shopper interactive scoring observations checklist model. Conclusions regarding mystery shopping practicalities, preparation and applications were reached and shown.
ANALYSIS OF “ALL-INCLUSIVE” TOURISM MODE IN THE BALEARIC ISLANDS
Tourism market forces in most tourism driven economies and mature tourism destinations shift from the ‘conventional independent’ to ‘all-inclusive’ (AI) tour mode. Using Majorca as a case study, this paper analyses the AI mode: its supply and demand sides. Through specific tourist and desk surveys conducted in 2006, it was revealed that until May 2006,the population of AI accommodation suppliers in Majorca was around 195; 36% of which offer ‘exclusively AI’ product. Moreover, above 85% of tourists visiting Majorca were package tour customers; with at least 15 percent travelling through the AI tours. Noticeably, an AI tourist spends less than overall average tourist’s expenditure per day at the destination, but spends more at the country of origin. Challenges are identified and recommendations given to improve the welfare of the economy.
A STUDY ON THE COMPETITION STRATEGIES OF THE AIRLINE COMPANIES IN TURKEY
Izzet KILINC, Mehmet Akif ONCU & Yunus Emre TASGIT
This study aims to determine
how the airline companies perceive the competition environment they are
in, which competitive strategies they implement and to find out how and by
which factors they are affected while forming these strategies.
Qualitative research method was used in the study. The population of the
study consists of the airline companies which have mainly local capital,
the management centres of which are in
MECHANISM OF SOCIAL CAPITAL in COMMUNITY TOURISM Participatory PLANNING in SAMUI ISLAND, THAILAND
Kannapa Pongponrat & Naphawan Jane Chantradoan
Community participation as a strategy for local tourism development has become an important mechanism to promote sustainable tourism. This paper explores community participatory planning process in local tourism development on Samui Island, Thailand. Factors associated with participation of local people were examined in decision-making, implementation, and monitoring and evaluation phases. Result showed social capital as a driver in various stages can be considered as crucial mechanism for the success of the planning for local tourism activities.
THE OPTIMIZATION OF THE GREEK COASTAL SHIPPING TRANSPORTATION NETWORK
This dissertation presents a heuristic algorithm that
improves the coastal network in the Greek
IS ‘MALAYSIA TRULY ASIA’? FORECASTING TOURISM DEMAND FROM ASEAN USING SARIMA APPROACH
Loganathan Nanthakumar, Thirunaukarasu Subramaniam & Mori Kogid
Malaysia is well-known for her ‘blue’ and ‘green’ tourism attractions. Malaysian government launched several tourism programs to encourage and attract international tourist arrivals into Malaysia. This study therefore attempts to forecast the tourism demand for Malaysia from ASEAN countries. The literature on forecasting tourism demand is huge comprising various types of empirical analysis. Some of the researchers applied cross-sectional data, but most of the tourism demand forecasting used pure time-series analytical models. One of the important time-series modelling used in tourism forecasting is ARIMA modelling. This study employs quarterly time series data of ASEAN tourist arrivals to Malaysia for the period from 1995:Q1 to 2009:Q4 to forecast future tourism demand for Malaysia. The forecasting performance is based on seasonal ARIMA model. The findings of this study revealed that seasonality model does not offer any valuable insights or provide reliable forecasts on tourism demand for Malaysia by ASEAN countries. This scenario occurs because of the fact that ‘Malaysia is Truly Asia’.
EUROPEAN TOURISM POLICY AND REFLECTIONS OF TOURISM IN THE NEGOTIATIONS WITH TURKEY
Sibel Mehter Ayk?n & Sevcan Y?ld?z
This paper deals with Turkey’s alignment with the EU norms in the area of tourism and consists of two main parts: Part one is an account of the European Union’s approach to the tourism policy and the recent developments observed. Part two attempts to assess the progress made by Turkey in the adoption of the Acquis pertaining to tourism that covers a broad range of topics such as the internal market policy, competition policy, public health and consumer protection policies, regional development policy and the environmental policy, etc. In order to limit the scope, the discussion expands on the main axis of Enterprise and Industrial Policy, which forms the subject matter of Chapter 20 of the Negotiating Framework for Turkey.
BENEFIT-COST RATIO OF OPEN SPACE PRESERVATION FOR THE CAUSE OF ENVIRONMENT & TOURISM DEVELOPMENT IN AN INDIAN CITY
Governments in developing countries, generally, convert open spaces meant for greenery or some recreation project, to concrete forest for revenue maximization. In this way, long term gains of preserving such spaces for the benefits of residents or tourists are ignored. Nek Chand’s Rock Garden in the Chandigarh city of India is an environmental education spot visited by millions of tourists each year. City administration considered this project as violation of city’s master plan in the beginning but later on agreed to maintain this monument. Annual tourism value of this spot is very handsome but amount spent by city administration on its maintenance and expansion is still not adequate. Need for maintaining this important site by way of high benefit cost ratio (B/C ratio) has been emphasized in the article.
EXAMINING THE RISK DISCOURSE IN TERROR MOVIES. Tourism and Risk after WTC attack
Korstanje Maximiliano E.
World Trade Centre’s attacks not only set precedents respecting to a new way of making terrorism but also paralyzed the mass-transport for more than one day. This generated a serious challenge for tourist industry to the extent of calling the attention of many scholars. On another hand, 11/09 acted as a conduit for the remake of many movies and films based on the vulnerability of American tourists when are out of home. Under such a context, the present research focuses on the analysis of discourse of four famous terror-related movies. The main thesis of this project is that September 11 attacks paved the ways for the advent of a new genre of terror movies based on sadism, ethnocentrism and the construction of a radicalized-otherness.
THE IMPACT OF TOURISM ON OCCURRENCE OF SELECTED ANIMAL SPECIES IN THE BOHEMIAN FOREST
Zuzana Dvorakova Liskova, Miloslav Lapka, Eva Cudlinova, Petr Dvorak & Dagmar Skodova Parmova
Currently, the continuous expansion of urban areas is forcing people to move further into the countryside in search for open space. This results in decreasing of undisturbed natural areas which are slowly disappearing. This imbalance in the market, at least in Central Europe, leads to an increase in number of large protected areas preserved as recreational backgrounds for cities. The objective of this research was to assess the impact of tourism during one year on the selected fauna in the Bohemian Forest National Park (Sumava in Czech). Based on outdoor research, the stays signs of game were classified as well as particular activities of visitors were specified in the focused area to analyze the impact rate of visitors on the surrounding area.
Stories of Practice: Tourism Policy and Planning
Review by Paul F. J. Eagles
Securing and Sustaining the Olympic City – Reconfiguring London for 2012 and Beyond
Review by Simon Curtis
Tourism and Sustainable Development: Reconsidering a Concept of Vague Policies
Review by Vikneswaran Nair
Modern Mass Tourism
Review by Kurtulus Karamustafa
Places of the Imagination: Media, Tourism and Culture
Review by Sue Beeton
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