TOURISMOS: An International Multidisciplinary Refereed Journal of Tourism


ISSN: 1790-8418 (print)
ISSN: 1792-6521 (online)

 

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Volume 7, Number 1, 2012

To download Volume 7, Number 1 in PDF form please click here (the file is approximately 5,65 MB and it opens in a new window).

To download individual papers published in Volume 7, Number 1 in PDF form please click here (access is provided through DOAJ in a new window).

 

RESEARCH PAPERS:

THE PACKAGED TOURIST: A JAPANESE AND AMERICAN PERSPECTIVE 

by Daniel L. Spears & Mark S. Rosenbaum

Japan Travel Bureau recently reported that 48.7% of Japanese overseas travellers, in 2008, were part of a packaged tour, while 47.7% arranged their own travel.  Interestingly, very little is actually known regarding demographic and consumption differences between Japanese packaged and independent tourists, especially regarding their shopping behaviors, or how Japanese -package tourists differ from another segment, such as packaged tourists from America.  The objective of this article is to address this chasm by exploring demographic and consumption differences between, and among, Japanese and American packaged and non-packaged tourists who are vacationing in Honolulu, Hawaii.   The sample includes 198 and 127 Japanese independent and packaged tourists, respectively, as well as 383 and 76 American independent and packaged tourists, respectively .

 

TOURISM, CULTURAL HERITAGE AND E-SERVICES: USING FOCUS GROUPS TO ASSESS CONSUMER PREFERENCES 

by Wadim Strielkowski, Patrizia Riganti & Jing Wang

This paper discusses the use of in-depth focus groups to assess residents, tourists and other stakeholders’ preferences for e-services that would enhance access to cultural heritage in Amsterdam, Leipzig, and Genoa. Several e-services are mentioned, and in particular the integration of e-services in these cities is highlighted. The way this integration takes place very much relates to the maturity of each city in terms of cultural tourism, and information and communication technology (ICT). Our results show that the need for tailored information (profiling), interactive maps (geospatial dimension), booking service “one-stop shops”, and consumer-generated content were all common in the three cities. In some cities the focus groups expressed a need for various forms of e-governance. Mobile devices and navigation systems were also high on the agenda in the more ICT-advanced cities .

 

EXPLORING INDIAN TOURISTS’ MOTIVATION AND PERCEPTION OF BANGKOK

by Raktida Siri, Lisa Kennon, Bharath Josiam & Daniel Spears

Indians increasingly travel to foreign countries in a large number every year. To date, there are no studies focusing on this group of tourists. This study thus investigates the Indian tourists’ motivation and perception of Bangkok, Thailand. The study shows that both push and pull factors stimulate these Indians to travel. The most important motivations are to have fun, followed by to enjoy the beautiful environment, scenery, and beaches. Based on 20 motivations, four core typologies of Indian tourists are found: Novelty Seeking, Stress Busting/Fun, Achievement, and Family Oriented/Education. Family and/or friends and the Internet are perceived by Indian tourists as important sources in trip decision making .

 

EXPLORING TOURISTS’ PERCEPTION: THE CASE OF BANGLADESH

Muhammad Sabbir Rahman

 

The purpose of this research is to test the tourist’s perception in the choice of selection a destination under the perspective of Bangladeshi tourism environment. The survey instrument was employed by using convenience sampling procedure on 250 tourists from significant tourist’s destination places from Bangladesh. Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) followed by Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was used to test the key influential attributes. Apart from that structural equation model was also used to test the hypothesis of this study. The result shows that most of the tourists perceived that selection of a destination highly depend on destination brand image, internet adoption followed by customer’s satisfaction. This research will assist the operators of tourism industry in Bangladesh to understand the influential factors which are influencing tourist’s perception to choose a destination that is unexplored previously by the past researchers .

 

LOCALLY AND SOCIALLY EMBEDDED tourism CLUSTERS IN RURAL GREECE      

Maria Partalidou & Stavriani Koutsou

Creating a local identity through clustering of attractions, services and products in a region seems to be the contemporary answer in maintaining economic and social viability. Despite the growing interest in tourism clusters, it is still a field that remains unexplored especially in rural areas which have additional drawbacks to entrepreneurship. In this paper we will focus on the development of tourism clusters within the framework of Community Initiative LEADER+ in rural areas in Greece. Both qualitative and quantitative data from several case studies of clustering in Northern Greece and a survey on 110 cluster members are used to answer our basic research questions. Evidence from our study suggest that those tourism clusters are locally and socially embedded, are driven from different networking norms and levels of trust amongst members and are in need of motivation, encouragement and assistance from local stakeholders.

 

?nvest?gat?ng hotel employee ?nvolvement ?n strateg?c human resources management                       

Rana Ozen Kutanis, Muammer Mesci, Istemi Comlekci & Oznur Sahin

The aim of this study is to investigating participation levels of hotel employees in the dimensions of strategic human resources management. To achieve this, we present to what extent hotel employees participated in the dimensions of strategic human resources management. The success of hotel business in undertaking the wishes and expectations of its employees will motivate them and will contribute to the managers and companies. The research data was derived from employees working full-time shifts in a five-star hotel. At the end of the research, it’s stated that most of the employees participated in the dimensions of strategic human resources management. However, it’s determined that most of the employees had a middle level participation according to the statements that produce the dimensions strategic human resources management. As a result, it’s deduced that employees in hotels care about the dimensions of strategic human resources management and participate in them. The fact that the data was gathered from only one five-star hotel is an important constraint of this study.

 

investments and turnover: pool data analysis for THE romanian hotel and restaurant sector                     

Surugiu Camelia, Surugiu Marius-Razvan, Frent Cristi & Dinca Ana-Irina

Investments represent a powerful tool for an enterprise to stimulate economic performance, productivity, and competitiveness in the medium and long term. This paper analyses the relationship between investment and the turnover of active enterprises operating in the hotel and restaurant sector through the construction of a pool data equation created for the eight development regions in Romania (North-East, South-East, South-Muntenia, South-West Oltenia, North-West, West, Centre, Bucharest-Ilfov, for the period 1999-2007. The Romanian tourism sector is still perceived as fragile, even after 20 years of turning into a market economy, as incomplete transition affects the development of various economic sectors and thus also of tourism. The important question is how strongly investment in the hotel and restaurant sector impacts regional development.

 

The impact of macroeconomic country-specific factors on international expansion of US hotel chains

Ljudevit Pranic, Sonia Ketkar & Wesley S. Roehl

While our understanding of the issues surrounding foreign direct investment (FDI) in tourism is limited (Endo, 2006), even less is known about the role of FDI and other macroeconomic variables in the lodging segment of the tourism industry. This research fills this gap by examining the population of U.S. hotels with international operations with respect to FDI, Market Interconnectedness and Tourist Flows in foreign countries. Additional examination is performed separately on high-income and middle-income countries. Study findings suggest that Market Interconnectedness is highly significantly and positively correlated with presence of U.S. hotel firms abroad, while FDI and Tourist Flows are not. However, results somewhat differ with respect to high-income and middle-income countries.

 

ASSESSING TOURIST INFRASTRUCTURE IN THE ISLAND OF SKIATHOS: THE VIEWS OF LOCALS AND VISITORS

Stylianos Tampakis, Evangelos Manolas & Vasileios Tampakis

The island of Skiathos is an important tourist destination. The creation of tourist infrastructure is a necessary pre-requisite for confronting competition from other, equally popular, tourist destinations. In this paper an effort is made to identify the problems with regard to the island’s tourist infrastructure in order to make it possible for those responsible to take the appropriate measures for improving this infrastructure. This paper is based on data retrieved from a structured assessment questionnaire. It also combines two parallel research projects, with regard to both the local population as well as visitors, who are asked to assess the road network, the pedestrian walkways, the parking areas and access to the island’s beaches. In addition, the respondents are asked to express their opinion with regard to the drainage system, the water supply network, cleanliness, transport services as well as hotel facilities, restaurants and entertainment places.

 

understanding the role of social media in destination marketing  

Wendy Lange-Faria & Statia Elliot

Social media in the context of destination marketing is a growing area of study, and judging by the exponential growth in social networks over recent years, the demand for research will continue. This paper provides a review of the literature to date on social media use by destination marketing organizations (DMOs). A growing number of travellers are influenced by user generated content, presenting a number of challenges and opportunities to DMOs. This review seeks to synthesize existing research, theories and concepts, in order to understand how social media applications are being used by tourism authorities, and to provide a bridge from past research to future success.

 

INTEGRATING  SUSTAINABILITY  INTO  TOUR  OPERATOR  BUSINESS: AN  INNOVATIVE  APPROACH  IN  SUSTAINABLE  TOURISM                                                             

Ghada Khairat & Azza Maher

Tour operators are the key elements in the tourism system; they are the link between the tourist and the destination. As a result, tour operators are in many ways the key to achieving more sustainable forms of tourism. This study aims at examining the actual experience of tour operators who adopted sustainability practices in their business with the purposes of: 1) Identifying the priority implementation areas; 2) Determining the most important motivators which encourage tour operators to adopt more responsible strategies; 3) Exploring the outcomes and benefits as well as the major obstacles and barriers that deter the integration of sustainability strategies in the tour operator business. For this study 32 tour operators have been investigated. In addition, in-depth interviews with destination stakeholders have been conducted to reflect their experience. 

 

THE USA’S INTERNATIONAL TRAVEL DEMAND AND ECONOMIC GROWTH IN TURKEY: A CAUSALITY ANALYSIS

Cem ISIK

This paper investigates the relationship between the USA international travel demand and Turkey’s economic growth over the period 1990-2008. A vector error correction model is employed to test for Granger causality in the presence of co integration between variables. In this study, the impact of the USA international traveler in the Turkish tourism sector is investigated and evaluated by using ADF test, Co-integration approach, and Granger Causality test. The empirical findings indicate a long-run equilibrium relationship and a further uni-directional causality between the two variables.

 

fare tale orienteering: Developing art word by letterboxing event                      

Pirita Ihamaki

Special events have grown in the tourism industry as indispensable product alternatives to many urban destinations. This case study describes a unique Art Word by Letterboxing – event, which was organized in Pori, Finland. The event was fruitful in terms of adventure tourist products and introduces opportunities art word workshops and is an example special tourist event. This study presents a concrete letterboxing application and describes comprehensively the contents and goals of Art Word by letterboxing -event. The study is empirical case study, which passed on 12 participators evaluation. Most outstanding result is the social interaction with word of art amateur in group conversation bring up ideas for create this kind of events for new places example inside of school or middle of forest. Users find the event refreshing, motivating and highly suitable as a concluding event for their art word workshops. Experiences and feelings inspire to embark on future adventures.

 

international demand for nature-based tourism in costa rica: socio-demographic & travel indicators

Daniel Villalobos-Cespedes, Emilio Galdeano-Gomez & Alfredo Tolon-Becerra

Demand for tourist activities related to natural spaces and wildlife has increased over recent years. This paper analyses the influence of socio-demographic and travel indicators on international demand for such tourism in Costa Rica. Using discrete choice models, a range of principal activities is studied: hiking, visits to volcanoes, observation of flora and fauna, bird-watching and canoeing. The results show the favourable influence on demand of variables such as family, travel with partners and country of origin, providing orientation for policies and strategies of the nature-based tourism in Costa Rica, as well as indicators for other countries interested in developing this sector.

 

THE MYSTERY DEMYSTIFIED: A MYSTERY SHOPPER'S EXPERIENCE WITH HOTEL SERVICES AND PRODUCTS

Tamer Mohamed Atef

Hospitality operations depend greatly on measuring the quality of services and products delivered to their customers, several methods are used, but mystery shopping is the most preferred. Mystery shopping is a process that uses industry professionals to evaluate the products and services offered by hospitality operations through living the actual guest experience and engaging in normal guest - staff encounters and interactions, leading to final evaluations to be reported to concerned management in order to improve the overall performance. The aim of the study was to practically show how mystery shopping is carried out, documented, and used as basis for continuous improvement, in order to achieve this aim the following objectives were acknowledged: a) to show how customers experience and evaluate hotel services and products; b) to propose a mystery shopper interactive scoring observations checklist model. Conclusions regarding mystery shopping practicalities, preparation and applications were reached and shown.

 

CASE STUDIES:

ANALYSIS OF “ALL-INCLUSIVE” TOURISM MODE IN THE BALEARIC ISLANDS     

Wineaster Anderson

Tourism market forces in most tourism driven economies and mature tourism destinations shift from the ‘conventional independent’ to ‘all-inclusive’ (AI) tour mode. Using Majorca as a case study, this paper analyses the AI mode: its supply and demand sides. Through specific tourist and desk surveys conducted in 2006, it was revealed that until May 2006,the population of AI accommodation suppliers  in Majorca was around 195; 36% of which offer ‘exclusively AI’ product. Moreover, above 85% of tourists visiting Majorca were package tour customers; with at least 15 percent travelling through the AI tours.  Noticeably, an AI tourist spends less than overall average tourist’s expenditure per day at the destination, but spends more at the country of origin. Challenges are identified and recommendations given to improve the welfare of the economy.

 

A STUDY ON THE COMPETITION STRATEGIES OF THE AIRLINE COMPANIES IN TURKEY

Izzet KILINC, Mehmet Akif ONCU & Yunus Emre TASGIT

This study aims to determine how the airline companies perceive the competition environment they are in, which competitive strategies they implement and to find out how and by which factors they are affected while forming these strategies. Qualitative research method was used in the study. The population of the study consists of the airline companies which have mainly local capital, the management centres of which are in Turkey and which have the licence of scheduled and non-scheduled domestic and international flights. A descriptive analysis was made for the data. The result of the study reveals that the competitive strategies implemented especially focus on obtaining the cost leadership. In addition, costs, customer satisfaction and service quality, employees, innovation and technological changes appear to be the most important elements among the factors which affect the competitive strategies.

 

MECHANISM OF SOCIAL CAPITAL in COMMUNITY TOURISM Participatory PLANNING in SAMUI ISLAND, THAILAND

Kannapa Pongponrat & Naphawan Jane Chantradoan

Community participation as a strategy for local tourism development has become an important mechanism to promote sustainable tourism. This paper explores community participatory planning process in local tourism development on Samui Island, Thailand. Factors associated with participation of local people were examined in decision-making, implementation, and monitoring and evaluation phases. Result showed social capital as a driver in various stages can be considered as crucial mechanism for the success of the planning for local tourism activities.

 

THE OPTIMIZATION OF THE GREEK COASTAL SHIPPING TRANSPORTATION NETWORK           

 Konstantinos Chainas

This dissertation presents a heuristic algorithm that improves the coastal network in the Greek Aegean Sea. The Greek coastal shipping - except for its specific role for Greek tourism - becomes of utmost importance after the decision of the European Union to reinforce, for special reasons, the short-distance shipping. This dissertation suggests and describes a methodology for the re-planning of the coastal network of Greece and aims to develop a new model of the coastal shipping network in Greece. This model is documented by the heuristic algorithm for improvement, the NAUTILUS. This algorithm drastically improves the travel times for the Aegean destinations and poses the terms and conditions for the materialisation of a Complete Decision System, for the overall improvement of the Greek coastal shipping.

 

IS ‘MALAYSIA TRULY ASIA’? FORECASTING TOURISM DEMAND FROM ASEAN USING SARIMA APPROACH

Loganathan Nanthakumar, Thirunaukarasu Subramaniam & Mori Kogid

Malaysia is well-known for her ‘blue’ and ‘green’ tourism attractions. Malaysian government launched several tourism programs to encourage and attract international tourist arrivals into Malaysia. This study therefore attempts to forecast the tourism demand for Malaysia from ASEAN countries. The literature on forecasting tourism demand is huge comprising various types of empirical analysis. Some of the researchers applied cross-sectional data, but most of the tourism demand forecasting used pure time-series analytical models. One of the important time-series modelling used in tourism forecasting is ARIMA modelling. This study employs quarterly time series data of ASEAN tourist arrivals to Malaysia for the period from 1995:Q1 to 2009:Q4 to forecast future tourism demand for Malaysia. The forecasting performance is based on seasonal ARIMA model. The findings of this study revealed that seasonality model does not offer any valuable insights or provide reliable forecasts on tourism demand for Malaysia by ASEAN countries. This scenario occurs because of the fact that ‘Malaysia is Truly Asia’.

 

EUROPEAN TOURISM POLICY AND REFLECTIONS OF TOURISM IN THE NEGOTIATIONS WITH TURKEY        

Sibel Mehter Ayk?n & Sevcan Y?ld?z

This paper deals with Turkey’s alignment with the EU norms in the area of tourism and consists of two main parts: Part one is an account of the European Union’s approach to the tourism policy and the recent developments observed. Part two attempts to assess the progress made by Turkey in the adoption of the Acquis pertaining to tourism that covers a broad range of topics such as the internal market policy, competition policy, public health and consumer protection policies, regional development policy and the environmental policy, etc. In order to limit the scope, the discussion expands on the main axis of Enterprise and Industrial Policy, which forms the subject matter of Chapter 20 of the Negotiating Framework for Turkey.

 

RESEARCH NOTES:

BENEFIT-COST RATIO OF OPEN SPACE PRESERVATION FOR THE CAUSE OF ENVIRONMENT & TOURISM DEVELOPMENT IN AN INDIAN CITY                               

Pradeep Chaudhry

Governments in developing countries, generally, convert open spaces meant for greenery or some recreation project, to concrete forest for revenue maximization. In this way, long term gains of preserving such spaces for the benefits of residents or tourists are ignored. Nek Chand’s Rock Garden in the Chandigarh city of India is an environmental education spot visited by millions of tourists each year. City administration considered this project as violation of city’s master plan in the beginning but later on agreed to maintain this monument. Annual tourism value of this spot is very handsome but amount spent by city administration on its maintenance and expansion is still not adequate. Need for maintaining this important site by way of high benefit cost ratio (B/C ratio) has been emphasized in the article.

 

EXAMINING THE RISK DISCOURSE IN TERROR MOVIES. Tourism and Risk after WTC attack

Korstanje Maximiliano E.

World Trade Centre’s attacks not only set precedents respecting to a new way of making terrorism but also paralyzed the mass-transport for more than one day. This generated a serious challenge for tourist industry to the extent of calling the attention of many scholars. On another hand,  11/09 acted as a conduit for the remake of many movies and films based on the vulnerability of American tourists when are out of home. Under such a context, the present research focuses on the analysis of discourse of four famous terror-related movies. The main thesis of this project is that September 11 attacks paved the ways for the advent of a new genre of terror movies based on sadism, ethnocentrism and the construction of a radicalized-otherness.

 

THE IMPACT OF TOURISM ON OCCURRENCE OF SELECTED ANIMAL SPECIES IN THE BOHEMIAN FOREST

Zuzana Dvorakova Liskova, Miloslav Lapka, Eva Cudlinova, Petr Dvorak & Dagmar Skodova Parmova

Currently, the continuous expansion of urban areas is forcing people to move further into the countryside in search for  open space. This results in decreasing of undisturbed natural areas which are slowly disappearing. This imbalance in the market, at least in Central Europe, leads to an increase in number of large protected areas preserved as recreational backgrounds for cities. The objective of this research was to assess the impact of tourism  during one year on the selected fauna in the Bohemian Forest National Park (Sumava in Czech). Based on outdoor research, the stays signs of game were  classified as well as particular activities of visitors were  specified in the focused area to analyze the impact rate of visitors on the surrounding area.

 

BOOK REVIEWS:

Stories of Practice: Tourism Policy and Planning

Review by Paul F. J. Eagles

 

Securing and Sustaining the Olympic City – Reconfiguring London for 2012 and Beyond

Review by Simon Curtis

 

Tourism and Sustainable Development: Reconsidering a Concept of Vague Policies

Review by Vikneswaran Nair

 

Modern Mass Tourism

Review by Kurtulus Karamustafa

 

Places of the Imagination: Media, Tourism and Culture            

Review by Sue Beeton

 

 

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