TOURISMOS: An International Multidisciplinary Refereed Journal of Tourism


ISSN: 1790-8418 (print)
ISSN: 1792-6521 (online)

 

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Volume 6, Number 2, Autumn 2011

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ABSTRACTS

RESEARCH PAPERS:

WHO WILL STAY AND WHO WILL GO: PREDICTING CLUB GENERAL MANAGER TURNOVER

by Bharath M. Josiam, Joan Marie Clay & Scott Graff

This paper identifies factors that influence the job tenure of general managers of private clubs in Illinois, Minnesota, and Wisconsin. Descriptive statistics, correlations, analysis of variance, and regression analysis were used for statistical analysis. Fifteen items correlated positively to predict top management tenure in private clubs.  Level of conflict between the club general manager and general membership was identified as the one statistically significant negative correlation.  Number of years in the club industry, clearly defined job responsibility, satisfaction with compensation, sense of loyalty, and Certified Club Manager certification all had significant relationships with job tenure. Private clubs have been much less researched than other segments of the hospitality industry.  The cost of finding, training, and keeping new managers is tremendous. No previous study did a quantitative study of job tenure of general managers. This study focuses on factors influencing the job tenure of general managers in private clubs.

 

THE IMPACT OF CARBON DISCHARGE LEGISLATION ON FUTURE DEVELOPMENT OF MARITIME TOURISM AND CRUISING

by Anders Steene

In 2008 the U.N. International Maritime Organisation set up new rules for sulphurous content in maritime fuel. That decision will have consequences for shipping and trade in the Baltic Sea. From the 1st of July 2010, ships sailing in the Baltic Sea are allowed to have only 1,5 % sulphurous content in their fuel and only 0,1 % in 2015-01-01. Is this a threat to the tourism industry? Will there be fewer cruising ships in the Baltic Sea? Will the ferry traffic between the harbours in the Baltic Sea decrease due to higher fuel price, because of less sulphurous content in the fuel? This paper is aimed at exploring answers to all previous questions.

 

The impact of macroeconomic country-specific factors on International expansion of US hotel chains

by Ljudevit Pranic, Sonia Ketkar & Wesley S. Roehl

While our understanding of the issues surrounding foreign direct investment (FDI) in tourism is limited (Endo, 2006), even less is known about the role of FDI and other macroeconomic variables in the lodging segment of the tourism industry. This research fills this gap by examining the population of U.S. hotels with international operations with respect to FDI, Market Interconnectedness and Tourist Flows in foreign countries. Additional examination is performed separately on high-income and middle-income countries. Study findings suggest that Market Interconnectedness is highly significantly and positively correlated with presence of U.S. hotel firms abroad, while FDI and Tourist Flows are not. However, results somewhat differ with respect to high-income and middle-income countries.

 

Tour guiding: Interpreting the challenges

by Monika Prakash, Nimit Chowdhary & Sunayana

Intrigued by the difference in enrolment for tour guide training programme this paper tries to identify concerns that are important to trainee tour guides from northern and eastern regions. Paper is based on response from a sample of trainees who attended RLGTP programme. Study identified 6 broad factors of concerns to individuals who are considering becoming tour guides and 16 variables with significant difference.

 

Tourism Activity and Economic Conditions in Britain

by Alexandros Apostolakis & Dave Clark

This study examines the impact of tourism activity on local business and economic conditions in local economies in Britain. The empirical investigation focuses on whether or not tourism activity is beneficial to local rural and urban economies and informs policy makers aiming to maximise their tourism potential. The analysis differentiates local authority areas into two distinct groups according to the intensity of tourism employment (below and above average). Whilst the empirical evidence suggests that tourism exerts positive benefits to local economies in the form of entrepreneurship, these benefits may not accrue to the tourism sector itself because in the act of “moving on” the labour force takes its improved human capital with it. This means that the promotion of tourism alone as a policy for regeneration may not be as successful as some policymakers might perceive. It is clear that a “one size fits all” prescription is inappropriate .

 

The effect of wellness brand awareness on expected and perceived service quality

by Gerhard Bertsch & Herwig Osterman

Enterprises in the tourism sector are being exposed to ever fiercer national and international competition and are confronted with difficulties in market positioning. One possibility for achieving differentiation on the market is high service quality and the creation of strong wellness brands. The aim of the present work is to investigate whether brands suggest a promise of quality that also appears to be especially important in wellness tourism. In this connection the study ascertains whether the brand awareness of wellness guests influences the perception of quality. The study also investigates whether demographic differences exist between brand aware and non-brand aware wellness guests. The results show that brands of wellness cluster are relatively weakly anchored in people's minds. There are demographic differences between brand aware and non-brand aware wellness guests. The existence of brand awareness raises the expected quality but not the perceived quality .

 

EXPLORING THE EFFECTS OF DESTINATION’S POSITIONING ON HOTELS’ PERFORMANCE: THE MILAN CASE

by Ruggero Sainaghi & Silvia Canali

 

The present paper investigates the link existing between the commercial mix, seasonality of destination and daily performance of hotel businesses. The choices made at city level form a commercial mix which, despite the differing emphases and specific features of single businesses, tends to mark the entire hotel industry. The Milan case, in particular, shows the capacity of trade fair events and business components to increase average room rates and occupancy. On the other hand, there is a resulting slackening in holiday periods and non-working weeks, when a low level of the average room rate and occupancy is seen. Empirical findings suggest the central role played by metamanagement strategy. For this reason the article proposes an approach to help destination managers to reduce the seasonalities on which to focus their lines of development .

 

ECONOMIC POTENTIAL OF TOURISM: A CASE STUDY OF AGRA

by Surabhi Srivastava

Tourism in its broadest generic sense can do more to develop understanding among the people, provide jobs, create foreign exchange and raise living standards than any other economic force. India is world famous for the city of Taj -Agra. There are a number of other tourists attractions like Agra Fort, Itmad-ud-daula's tomb, Bharatpur Sanctuary, Sikandara, Fatehpur Sikri, etc, which have equal historical and architectural significance but tourists are not aware of about all these places and monuments. The focus of this paper is on the economic benefits accruing to the state byway of tourist's arrivals to Agra. Though Agra receives maximum number of tourists but except Taj Mahal they are not aware about other monuments. This study will evaluate the reasons of lacking in economic benefits from tourism and also analyse the tourist’ problems facing at Agra .

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TOURISM DEVELOPMENT AND POLITICS IN THE PHILIPPINES

by Joan C. Henderson

The paper examines tourism in the Philippines, a South East Asian nation which has yet to reach its potential as an international destination. Conditions in the country are analysed and possible reasons for its relatively poor performance are discussed. Various barriers to development are identified, but political circumstances emerge as a key consideration whereby instability in assorted manifestations has impeded the operation of the industry, investment and policy making. While experiences of destination development are distinctive, the particular example offers insights into general processes and underlying dynamics .

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Jet Ski Development Strategies: The Case of Caspian sea`s South-west beach

by Mohammadreza Tabibi & Amirreza Rohani

Marine tourism is an important component of ecotourism in the Mazandaran. It offers a wide range of passive and active recreational activities in Caspian sea`s South-west beaches. This paper is intended to describe situation and history of the PWCs (JET SKI) in Mazandaran and determine Jet Ski development strategies in south of Caspian Sea as a major ecotourism hub in Iran. This paper provides a strategy framework for both Iranian Governmental and private sectors to develop the marine tourism in the region. Then it Determination of appropriate Jet Ski development strategies in Mazandaran (South of Caspian Sea's) .

 

ASSISTED-SUICIDE TOURISM: IS IT TOURISM?

by Gregory Higginbotham

The purpose of this paper is to employ basic social psychological concepts in the interrelated fields of recreation, leisure, and tourism in an effort to examine if the medical tourism segment of assisted-suicide tourism is in fact a valid form of tourism. The comparative analysis reveals that although possessing an intrinsic motivation and an element of perceived freedom, travel for assisted-suicide is detached from the rewarding outcomes one normally receives from recreation, leisure, and tourism. Moreover, the consumption of tourism products is imparting an impression of actual tourism, whilst in reality the assisted-suicide experience is very much uninvolved in the true recreational and leisure aspects of tourism. The results of this paper are valuable for medical tourism and the tourism industry by helping both to avoid sectors that do not theoretically fit under their designations.

 

RURAL TOURISM OFFER AND LOCAL COMMUNITY PARTICIPATION IN THE GAMBIA

by Ikechukwu O. Ezeuduji & Wolfgang Rid

Locals have been objects rather than drivers of rural tourism development in The Gambia and therefore have no direct benefits from tourism. This study used in-depth and focus group interviews to identify and analyse the internal and external driving forces that influence rural tourism development in The Gambia. Rural tourism development in The Gambia will require a clear value position, operational excellence and strong customer relations to gain a market leadership that offers the nation a competitive advantage. The results can be used to help rural tourism stakeholders with locals at the core, to collaborate and manage this development proactively and retain revenue generated from tourism within rural communities. One suggestion made from the results of this study is to encourage locals to stage events that will lead to establish unique rural tourism experience which could in turn lead to securing a brand identity in the rural tourism marketplace.

 

Angkor heritage tourism and tourist perceptions

by Vannarith Chheang

The paper examines tourist perceptions and experiences through conducting survey based on the standard questionnaire. It argues that tourist perception is positive and their experiences are beyond expectations based on cultural enrichment and local people friendliness plus local hospitality facilities. The type of tourists visiting Angkor can be generally categorized as cultural tourists. Their motives and experiences are intertwined.  Although tourists are satisfied with their visit, there are some concerns especially the issues of environmental pollution, sanitation and cleanliness, local poverty, and language barriers, which lead to lack of communication between tourists and local people.

 

Considerations for sustainable tourism Development in developing countries: Perspectives from the South Pacific

by Charlie Panakera, Greg Willson, Chris Ryan & Ge Liu

Nations of the South Pacific face a number of major challenges with respect to sustainable tourism development. Much of the literature presents overtly pessimistic conceptualisations of South Pacific nations as environmentally vulnerable and economically dependent. This paper argues that the narrative concerning sustainable tourism development in the South Pacific is incomplete and the predominant narrative viewing the South Pacific nations as economically and environmentally vulnerable is too simplistic. Additionally, this paper challenges the narrative that high or mass levels of tourism within the South Pacific cannot be sustainable. Based on experience derived from operational experience and consultancy, this paper provides insights into the challenges and possibilities for sustainable tourism development in the South Pacific.

 

LOCAL FOOD IN LOCAL MENUS: THE CASE OF GOKCEADA

by Ridvan H. Yurtseven &  Ozan Kaya

This paper attempts to determine motivations which influencing tourists’ local food consumption. The study involved a multi-method approach undertaken through initiating interviews with local people to build inventory of local food of Gokceada, document review method was employed in restaurants (menus) to find out what extent local food peculiar to Gokceada take part in the menus of restaurants and finally a survey applied to visitors of the area to determine motivations which influencing their local food consumption. From the analysis five motivational factor identified; Quality of taste, authentic experience, rural development, health concern and knowledge. Quality of taste was chosen as a primary motivational factor by visitors to consume local food during their holiday.

 

THE D.I.Y. TOURIST

by Tullio Romita & Antonella Perri

In this work we will be dealing with the figure of the D.I.Y. Tourist originated from the local development processes based on the “cottage tourist industry” concept. We will be doing this by using part of the results obtained through a research started more than three years ago, by which we are studying what happens in the territorial contexts where tourism develops mostly on a spontaneous basis, that is in the presence of a widespread and pervasive undetected tourism practiced through private accommodation and mostly self-managed.

CASE STUDIES:

BENCHMARKING THE EGYPTIAN MEDICAL TOURISM SECTOR AGAINST INTERNATIONAL BEST PRACTICES: AN EXPLORATORY CASE STUDY

by Eman M. Helmy

This paper argues that any compatible strategy for the development of medical tourism at a developing nation should be based primarily on a comprehensive benchmarking study. It has employed the benchmarking phase of a national project for the development of an Egyptian medical tourism strategy to showcase significance of such benchmarking implications. The benchmarking phase of the Egyptian project has used two main data sets to reach reliable findings: a series of best practice destinations claimed to be key players leading the future of the medical tourism sector worldwide and an extensive survey of the Egyptian medical tourism sector. Arguably, the benchmarking process was crucial for the development of the strategy to measure performance of Egypt’s medical tourism sector against international best practices, to identify gaps in the Egyptian medical tourism sector and to address main areas required to develop ‘service value chain’ for the Egyptian medical tourism sector .

 

THE ROLE OF ALTERNATIVE TYPES OF TOURISM AND ICT STRATEGY FOR THE TOURISM INDUSTRY OF LESVOS

by Efstratios Papanis & Eleni Kitrinou

This paper suggests that Information Communication Technologies (ICTs) constitute a key factor for promoting economic growth, especially for tourism economy-based regions. The adoption of ICTs in the tourism sector, assists the produced outcomes, introduces innovation and facilitates the shift to a knowledge-based economy. The case of the Lesvos island, in Greece, is considered. A survey is contacted, concerning the development of the tourism sector in Lesvos Island and the role of ICT-use. Data collected from both Greek and foreign tourists and were descriptively analysed. Results indicate the critical role of alternative types of tourism  for the development of the tourism sector in the island, while ICT-use has the potential to extend the period of tourism .

 

ANALYSIS OF THE ECONOMIC IMPACTS OF CULTURAL FESTIVALS: THE CASE OF CALABAR CARNIVAL IN NIGERIA

by Bassey Benjamin Esu, Vivian Mbaze-Ebock Arrey, Glory Basil & Emmanuel Essien Eyo

This study investigates the economic impacts of the Calabar Carnival Festival in Nigeria. A convenience sample of 464 attendees was used for the study. A semi-structured, self administered questionnaire was employed in collecting relevant social and economic data from respondents. The result supported the claim that event tourism has positive economic impacts on the host community .

MOVIES AS A TOOL OF MODERN TOURIST MARKETING

by Nikolaos Vagionis & Maria Loumioti

The contemporary tourist market hosts intense competition amongst countries and particularly amongst those that their economy is supported, to a rather critical extent, by tourism business. All countries try to promote their tourist products using various marketing techniques. International experience reveals that movies constitute an important marketing tool which can effectively serve the strategy for promotion of tourism destinations. Landscapes, significant heritage sites, festivals, attractions and historical monuments have quite often been selected as film shooting locations. Evidence shows that such films may, under certain circumstances, induce “film tourism”, a phenomenon where local economies eventually enjoy an increase in visitor numbers and related benefits after the circulation of the relevant movie .

 

The Development of Cultural Tourism: A Review of UK ExperiencE

by Yi-De Liu & Chi-Fan Lin

This paper aims to identify commonalities in the successful development of cultural tourism in the UK that may be applied to other cities with similar contextual characteristics for cultural tourism development. It is also presented as a baseline for further comparative analysis. By examining and comparing the strategies of four major cities (i.e. London, Edinburg, Glasgow and Liverpool) with abundant experience in developing cultural tourism, it is found that London and Edinburgh, with an established cultural base and a large amount of ‘real cultural capital’, have managed to derive considerable economic benefit from its existing cultural facilities through developing cultural tourism. On the contrary, in Glasgow and Liverpool, the lack of an existing cultural base necessitated a strategy of investing continuously in new cultural attractions and events, and need to pay proportionately far more efforts than London and Edinburgh .

 

THE Environmental Management SYSTEMS AND CONTEMPORARY Tourism DEVELOPMENT

by Dobrica Jovicic

This paper discusses the role of the Environmental Management Systems (EMS) applied to the tourism sector. Among contemporary instruments, being used to encourage the movements of tourist companies towards sustainability, an important role have voluntary/market instruments. That is why this paper analyses the principles, tasks, good practice experiences advantages, disadvantages and perspectives of EMS. Special attention is devoted to the ISO 14000 standards, representing the most important international regulations for environmental management. The above standards are the base for implementation of EMS within tourism, and make it possible for companies to direct the course of their actions towards a full agreement with the international criteria. Although application of environmental management in tourism is a relatively recent phenomenon, the potentialities of the EMS are huge and they can significantly contribute to putting tourism on a sustainable path .

  

RESEARCH NOTES:

 

THE SUSTAINABILITY OF TOURISM SUPPLY CHAIN: A CASE STUDY RESEARCH

by Maria Teresa Gomes da Costa & Luisa Margarida Cagica Carvalho

The dynamic environment and the globalization of the tourism sector accelerate the necessity to improve sustainable supply chain management. In tourism sector the supply chain is composed by a diversity of firms with higher heterogeneity and in general without trade alliances. These circumstances improve the complexity of this chain and difficult the study of the sector. The main object of this study is to analyse the sustainability of tourism supply chain through a case study research. This research tries to answer the question: Is the supply chain of Palmela village sustainable? This case study presents a sustainable diagnosis of tourism supply chain and suggests several proposals for its improvement .

 

CASINO VS HISTORICAL TOURISM DESTINATIONS ALONG ROUTE NO.9 IN SAVANNAKHET CITY

by Donruetai Kovathanakul

This research project aims to study the significance of the historical tourism destinations databank of Route No.9 (East West Economic Corridor), located in Savannakhet, Savannakhet Province, Lao P.D.R. The historical destinations were assessed by adapting the Thailand Tourism Standard for measuring values. The author found that the measuring system should be adapted to the context of significance and values, as the numeric scheme was not the last result. The Lao Government has been trying to develop an ecotourism and cultural tourism policy. In order to reach quantitative growth, gambling businesses have been established in Savannakhet on Route No.9 which is also full of cultural tourism destinations. Nongdeune Temple VS Savan Vegas is a case study for historical tourism destination problems, that maybe contrasted with those of the Lao Government which is considering policy for tourism planning .

 

BOOK REVIEWS:

 

Tourism-Marketing Performance Metrics and Usefulness Auditing of Destination Websites

Review by Rodolfo Baggio

 

HOW TO WRITE A THESIS IN TOURISM FIELDS: A methodological scheME

Review by Maximiliano Korstanje

 

Stories of Practice: Tourism Policy and Planning

Review by Paul F. J. Eagles

 

the Economic Ascent of the Hotel Business

Review by Dimitris Koutoulas

 

ERRATUM:

 

Annual ATLAS Conference (Tourismos, 2010, Vol.6, No1)

by Evangelos Christou

 

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