TOURISMOS: An International Multidisciplinary Refereed Journal of Tourism

ISSN: 1790-8418 (print)
ISSN: 1792-6521 (online)





Volume 5, Number 2, Autumn 2010

To download Volume 5, Number 2 in PDF form please click here (the file is approximately 2,1 MB and it opens in a new window).

To download individual papers published in Volume 5, Number 2 in PDF form please click here (access is provided through DOAJ in a new window).



THE tourist sector: the italian experience

by Alfonso Marino

This work takes into account a theoretical discussion about the relationship between the private and public sectors with specific reference to Italy. It argues that three contexts are important, namely the ‘task’, ‘normative’ and ‘organisational’ environments. The second part of the paper reports some findings from research in progress. This describes the attitudes of Italian staff working in the public sector of tourism to the issue of the relationship between the public and private sector. South Italian managers rank motivational factors highly, while north Italian managers seem more concerned about issues of co-ordination and the quality of service provision.



by Tare Sayed Abdel Azim

This exploratory study was conducted  in order to investigate  the impact of socio-demographic variables “age, sex, familial situation, qualification, profession, income per capita”, international tourism experience, and tourism experience in Egypt on the decision making process of travel under the effect of the risk factor “terrorist attacks of last April,2006, in Sinai, Egypt». For this purpose, a two decision making process probabilities have been estimated by the ordinal logit model.



by Constantina Skanavis & Christos Giannoulis

In Greece, environmental interpretation is in its infancy as an academic field. In particular, there are no nature guides or specific conservation objectives, and there is no professional training for non formal environmental educators and/or interpreters. The ultimate scope of this paper is to reveal the necessity of integrating environmental interpretation in the training of Greek Ecotour guides.The focus is based on developing abilities which could enable Greek Ecotour guides to communicate and interpret the significance of the environment, promote minimal impact practices, ensure the sustainability of the natural and cultural environment, and motivate visiting tourists to evaluate the quality of life in relation to larger ecological or cultural concerns. The rationale underpinning this objective is that by providing accurate and effective interpretation of ecotourism sites as well as monitoring and modelling environmental responsible behaviour, the outcome will be to promote positive impacts of tourism and alleviate negative ones Local community will be encouraged to participate in environmental management of ecotourism settings. Furthermore, connecting ecotourism commitment to returning benefits, particularly economic and employment ones to local communities, it stresses that training local people to be interpretive guides, helps achieving not only ecological sustainability but also economic sustainability. Once trained, guides may encourage conservation action amongst both tourists and the local community.



by Andrew Taylor & Dean Carson

Desert areas account for around 70% of Australia’s landmass but are home to less than 3% of the population. The economies of many desert areas have been described as marginal or peripheral. Tourism is an important economic activity for desert destinations and one sector, four wheel drive tourism, has been gaining increasing attention. This paper examines the spending patterns of four wheel drive visitors to desert regions of the Northern Territory of Australia and compares them to non-four wheel drive leisure visitors for a five year period from 2000 to 2004. In addition to assessing the amount of expenditure (overall and per day), the research investigates whether there were differences in expenditure items and the dispersal of expenditure among destinations. This information can help inform decisions about levels of investment for attracting the four wheel drive market which might be justified, and the types of product opportunities that might arise from a growing market.


Causality between economic growth and tourism expansion: empirical evidence from Trentino - Alto Adige

by Juan Gabriel Brida, Andrea Barquet & Wiston Adrian Risso

This paper investigates the causal relations between tourism growth, relative prices and economic expansion for the Trentino-Alto Adige/Sudtirol, a region of northeast Italy bordering on Switzerland and Austria. Johansen cointegration analysis shows the existence of one cointegrated vector among real GDP, tourism and relative prices where the corresponding elasticities are positive. Tourism and relative prices are weakly exogenous to real GDP. A variation of the Granger Causality test developed by Toda and Yamamoto is performed to reveal the uni-directional causality from tourism to real GDP. Impulse response analysis shows that a shock in tourism expenditure produces a fast positive effect on growth.



by Evangelos Manolas, Stylianos Tampakis, Stergios Gkaintatzis & Soultana Mavridou-Mavroudi

River Ardas in Greece is an area of outstanding natural beauty and used as a recreation area. Each year the area is visited by people of all ages. Children visit the place either with their school or with their parents. It is important therefore to study their views about the river as a recreation area. The children asked were pupils of the 5th and 6th grade of the elementary schools of the region. These pupils completed a questionnaire in their classrooms. Almost all of these children had visited the area before. The majority of the children declare satisfied from their visit in the area and assess the landscape positively. However, most of the children have a less positive view about the provided recreation services. The majority of them also think the river constitutes a danger to their safety as well as the safety of the other children. Through the use of hierarchical loglinear analysis it becomes obvious that the pupils who declare from totally to very satisfied regarding their visit in the recreation area of Ardas also find that the provided recreation services range from very good to good. The same pupils also believe that that the river constitutes from very small to fair danger to their safety and visit the place more than five times a year. In addition, the pupils who visit the area more than five times a year think that the river constitutes from very small to fair danger to their safety. Most of the pupils think that the diversity of plants ranges from big to very big while the diversity of animals ranges from small to very small. There is a need for improved infrastructure in the area, e.g. observatories, so that pupils can discover the wild animals that live there. The love of the children for animals becomes obvious from the fact that they do not wish the prohibition of pets in the place. Most of the pupils like the idea of camping in the area with their parents but the idea of doing so with their fellow pupils is even more popular. The children think that their parents would find it easier to grant permission to them to camp in the area if they themselves accompanied their children and not if their children did so together with their fellow pupils. Through the test of independence it becomes obvious that the will of the children to camp in the area depends on the will of their parents.



by Elina Meliou & Leonidas Maroudas

The article investigates hotel employees and postgraduate students’ representations of “tourism development”, using social representations theory. Data from a sample of eighty participants were collected on Chios Island, Greece. To reveal social representations a word association procedure was applied followed by a correspondence analysis. The analysis attempts to map the meanings associated with “tourism development” and to pinpoint the links between those meanings. Results highlight differences and similarities in the representation of “tourism development” according to individuals’ social membership, offering an interesting insight for employers and educators.



by Tony L. Henthorne, Babu P. George & Alvin J. Williams

The case examines the impressive growth of tourism in Cuba. It analyzes tourism development in a society striving to navigate its way economically amid numerous social and political challenges. The Cuban experiment with tourism is a short-term mega success.   However, it is highly uncertain whether long-term sustainability can be maintained without the appropriate managerial changes at all levels. This paper highlights challenges in the tourism employment sector – training, supervisory issues, and performance evaluation, within a centrally-controlled bureaucratic system.  Of specific interest is the disconnection between the natural hospitability of the Cuban people and low levels of tourist satisfaction stemming from a lack of professional hospitality. The paper concludes by focusing on the high relevance of the Cuban cultural identity as a key motivator undergirding the demand for tourism. However, with the rapid growth of tourism, strains are occurring in the cultural realm, thus requiring immediate policy intervention for sustained positive results.



by Kalsom Kayat

An exploratory study utilizing qualitative approach was undertaken in 2005 to better understand the cultural contribution of a community-based homestay to both the rural communities and the visitors. The particular homestay, namely the Kampung Pelegong Homestay Programme (KPHP), is located in Negeri Sembilan, Malaysia. The study finds that while living culture is the core product component, education, entertainment and enrichment are important contributions of the cultural rural tourism product of KPHP to the visitors. In addition, an important finding indicates that this particular tourism product is unique as it stresses on establishing relationship (‘Sillatul-rahim’ in Malay) between hosts and guests whereby these relationships continue for years through letters, phone conversations, and emails. The programme also increases social cohesion among the hosts and contributes to their commitment to preserve and to provide knowledge on local customs and daily routine to enhance tourist experience.


Destination Marketing through a Utility Business Model: The Case of Cyprus

by Haris Machlouzarides

Traditional business models that used to govern the operations of travel and tourism businesses defined in a rigid way their functional areas and the relationships among them. The advent of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) has driven the transformation of these business models into novel destination marketing models. The Cyprus Tourism Organisation (CTO) recognising the need of establishing an explicit model for managing the process of destination marketing has developed an integrated marketing model to guide the management of the destination’s marketing process. Moreover, the CTO, aiming at enhancing the country’s tourism industry electronic marketing deployment levels, has put in place a utility business model that aims at optimising the industry’s potential to engage in integrated marketing activities. The key for optimising the destination’s marketing processes is the successful implementation of the model through the integration of traditional with electronic marketing activities.


Images of Egypt in United Kingdom Tour Operators’ BROCHURES

by Sabreen J. Abd El Jalil

Tour operators and travel agents play a double role as distribution channels and image creators with tourist brochures playing an important role in the image creation process. This paper assesses tourist images of Egypt in the United Kingdom through content analysis of the brochures of United Kingdom tour operators using 35 image attributes which are rated on a 5-point Likert scale.  Most of the brochures in the United Kingdom market present Egypt and its physical attractions - beaches, historical sites, luxury accommodation - extremely positively although clearly they have a vested interest in doing this.  They are however silent on certain aspects of the destination which have received negative comments in the literature - the real lifestyles of local people and their friendliness and hospitality, the local cuisine and safety and security.





by Maximiliano Korstanje

The following notes of research are aimed at disusing succinctly how language works into a tourist organization founding hegemony, conflict and a hierarchal order among involved groups. Basically, it contains the own individual experiences in a rent a car organization where English language is taken not only as a skilful instrument for work but also in a real mechanism to maintain hegemony over the rest of staff. Methodogically, we conducted an ethnographic from 2004 to 2008 in well famous rent a car company who authorities asked us not to reveal the real name. Hypothetically, we will call this company as Rentaldays. Findings should be circumscribed and interpreted in the contexts wherein they have been examined.


Tourism Development and Residents’ Attitude: A Case Study of Yazd, Iran

by Hamidreza Rastegar

The Yazd residents look at tourism development with a promising future to bring more income to the area that can be shared. Investors search to find new attractive business and middle and low classes in the community look to find better job opportunities. This paper assesses the attitude and perception of local residents toward this fast growing industry and also their expectation of authority regarding tourism development in Yazd city. A questionnaire was designed based on five point Likert scale and total 320 usable questionnaires were collected from local residents. Though the result shows positive attitude of local people towards tourism development but they are not totally satisfied with tourism management in the area.




CULTURES OF MASS TOURISM, reviewed by Deepak Chhabra


International Business Travel in the Global Economy, reviewed by Marianna Sigala


The cultural life of Automobile: roads of cinetic modernity, reviewed by Maximiliano Korstanje




Tourism Away from the Mainstream: The Travel and Tourism Research Association Canada ConferenceReport by Statia Elliot


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