TOURISMOS: An International Multidisciplinary Refereed Journal of Tourism
Volume 4, Number 2, Autumn 2009
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THE TOURISM-LED GROWTH HYPOTHESIS: EMPIERICAL EVIDENCE FROM COLOMBIA by Juan Gabriel Brida, Juan S. Pereyra, Wiston Adrian Risso, Maria Jesus Such Devesa & Sandra Zapata Aguirre
The purpose of this study is to investigate the contribution of tourism to economic growth in Colombia. First, we perform an ex-post analysis. We quantify the contribution of the tourism sector to economic growth from the early 1990’s until 2006 by disaggregating the growth of real GDP per capita into economic growth generated by tourism and by other industries. Second, we analyze if international tourism is a strategic factor for long-run economic growth for Colombia. This believes that tourism can cause long-run economic growth it is known in the literature as the tourism-led growth hypothesis. The hypothesis is tested empirically by using the cointegration test by Johansen and the Granger Causality test. We find empirical evidence for one cointegrated vector among real GDP per capita, Colombian tourism expenditures and real exchange rates, where the latter two variables are weakly exogenous to the model. The Granger causality test suggests that causality in this model goes from tourism expenditures to real GDP per capita.
EXAMINING THE LINK BETWEEN VISITORS’ MOTIVATIONS AND CONVENTION DESTINATION IMAGE by Youngsun Shin
This study aims to devise measures to develop tourism in the metropolis of Gwangju, emphasizing the activation of KimDaeJung Convention Centre which opened in September 2005 with its inaugurating exhibition. The purpose of this study is to suggest the direction for making a value added business of Exhibition & Convention with making use of the appealing tourism source of Gwangju KimDaeJung Convention Centre. Data were collected from 258 in the ‘2006 Gwangju·Jeonnam Regional Innovation Convention & Exposition’ which was held at Gwangju KimDaeJung Convention Centre. It was followed by reliability and adequacy and carried out ANOVA. Results suggested that KimDaeJung Convention Centre has to have a differentiate plan from others, for example, the improvement of traffic system and accommodation for tourists, the development of tourism products related to around sightseeing places, the program developing a substantial course of ‘city tour bus’ and the database of tourism information. The findings of this study offer useful insights for setting up Gwangju KimDaeJung Convention Centre marketing strategy.
LOW COST INFERENTIAL FORECASTING AND TOURISM DEMAND IN ACCOMMODATION INDUSTRY by Zaharias Psillakis, Alkiviadis Panagopoulos & Dimitris Kanellopoulos
This paper establishes a low cost inferential model that allows reliable time series forecasts. The model provides a naive unique computationally straightforward approach based on widely-used additive models. It refers to the decomposition of every time series value in “random” components, which are compounded to constitute a “Fibonacci type” predictor random variable. The expected value of this predictor gives a forecast of a future time series value. The standard deviation of the predictor serves to construct a prediction interval at a predefined confidence level. The major features of our model are: forecasting accuracy, simplicity of the implementation technique, generic usefulness, and extremely low cost effort. These features enable our model to be adopted by tourism practitioners on various types of forecasting demands. In this paper, we present an application study to forecast tourism demand that exists in the Greek accommodation industry (i.e. in Greece and in the broad region of Athens). In the application study, two independent approaches have been adopted. In the first approach we implemented our model, and in the second approach we implemented the well-known Box-Jenkins method. The results of these two approaches were compared. From this comparison: a) the performance of our model is revealed; b) its reliability is confirmed; and c) the model’s low cost aspects which include labour skills, financial means and time are supported.
TOURISM: A TOOL FOR CRAFTING PEACE PROCESS AT KASHMIR IN INDIA by Vinay Chauhan & Suvidha Khanna
Among the positive benefits attributed to the social and cultural aspects of tourism are the promotion of goodwill, understanding and peace among people across cultures. The role of tourism as an ambassador and vehicle of international understanding and peace has even been acknowledged by the United Nations. World Tourism Conference in 1960 in Manila has declared that tourism as a vital force for world peace since it brings both “hosts” and “guests” together to learn about peace by understanding and appreciating diverse cultural issues. Kashmir despite of a major tourist destination, the spread of terrorism especially during the last two decades have hindered the smooth growth of tourism industry. Thus following the principle of tourism as a strategic tool to counter terrorism, the present research is conducted to study the tourism’s contribution to the peace building in Kashmir in terms of residents’ and tourists’ perception. The research concludes that tourism has a significant contribution towards peace building in the study area and the study also suggests a strategic model based on developing guest-host relationship.
LOOKING FOR ENVIRONMENTAL EXCELLENCE IN TOURIST DESTINATIONS by Josep Boyra Amposta
This paper analyzes several factors of environmental change that affect a tourist destination along its cycle of evolution identifying for this purpose some of the existing interdependent bonds within the conceptualization of a tourism/environment system. A tourist municipality case study illustrates the impact of environmental change on the local tourist competitiveness to focus afterward on management practices responses aimed at minimizing the negative impact on the environment resulting from the local tourist activity itself. Finally, a series of conclusions derived from the analysis conducted are presented.
CLIMATE CHANGE AND SUSTAINABLE PRACTICES: A CASE STUDY OF THE RESORT INDUSTRY IN FLORIDA by Harold Richins & Janice Scarinci
Climate change and potential global warming has become important in many forums both nationally and internationally. Though there has previously been some opposition to the existence of human caused climate change and resulting global warming as a threat to the earth’s population and survival, scientific evidence has more recently been found to be compelling. One of the key industries that may be affected by global warming and climate change is the tourism industry. This is becoming a growing concern in Florida, U.S.A. where potential rising sea levels may have a profound effect. This paper discusses the development, importance and implications of climate change, its relationship to the tourism and hospitality industry and provides a case study of the Florida lodging industry regarding mechanisms and responses that the lodging and resort sector of the industry has been taking in addressing climate change factors.
DRAMATIC CHANGES IN THE CONTINUOUSLY EVOLVING TOURIST DESTINATIONS: THE CASE OF PARALIA IN PIERIA by George Zografos & Alex Deffner
This paper examines the evolution of ‘Paralia’ as a key mass tourism destination in northern Greece. The paper analyses the changes which are brought to a destination as a result of its main markets’ current socio-economic situation. Thus, it draws conclusions about the vulnerability of destinations, and how trends in key markets can move destinations to the various stages of the so-called Destination’s Life Cycle. The primary data are derived from a questionnaire survey addressed to citizens. The results of the survey seem to verify previous analyses about the area. Local people tend to compromise with the current situation. At the end, courses of action are suggested which could help the destination to move away from insecurity and stagnation. Proposals based on the outline of the destination’s strengths and weaknesses, opportunities and threats include the organisation of special events throughout the year and incentives for the attraction of residents from neighbouring urban centres.
THE LIFE CYCLE OF AGRO TOURIST ENTERPRISES by Chaido Dritsaki
This paper analyzes the supply of an important form of non urban tourism, the so-called agro tourism, together with providing a detailed literature review of the various stages of a tourist product life cycle. A theoretical econometric model of these life cycle phases is then presented. Finally, suggestions are proposed about the contribution of private and public sectors, and the strategies political institutions should follow in order to sustain and promote agro tourism.
IDENTITY AND SEX: CONCURRENT ASPECTS OF GAY TOURISM by J. Carlos Monterrubio
The present article aims to contribute to the recognition of two relevant aspects in gay travel; identity and sex. The paper explores the existing published work related to the relationships between tourism, gay men and identity. It concludes that the issue of identity commonly plays a crucial role as a travel reason in gay tourism. Also, it analyses the research evidence to suggest that sex is a frequently-present phenomenon in gay travel. By critically analysing the available research, the paper presents evidence to suggest that both aspects are relevant in the gay tourism spectrum.
A DECISION TREE APPLICATION IN TOURISM BASED REGIONAL ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT by Panayiotis G.Curtis & Dimitris X. Kokotos
The reasons for the deficient performance of Ionian Islands tourism in terms of incoming revenues expressed in USD and return on equity capital invested on hotels is explored. The answers to the questioner of management of the hotels surveyed were analyzed with the use of the Decision Tree tool. The issue of competitiveness of the tourism product was assessed. The development of alternative forms of tourism is proposed as a means of improving competitiveness and restoring sustainability in the sector.
E. Laws, B. Prideaux & K. Chon (editors): Crisis Management in Tourism, London: CAB International, 2007. Review by Konstantina Tsiakali
T. Winter, P. Teo & T.C. Chang (editors): Asia on Tour: Exploring the Rise of Asian Tourism, Abingdon: Routledge, 2009. Review by Jing (Bill) Xu
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