TOURISMOS: An International Multidisciplinary Refereed Journal of Tourism
Volume 2, Number 2, Autumn 2007
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SHOULD YOU REWARD MORE THOSE TEACHERS WHO PARTICIPATE MORE? A STUDY IN THE CONTEXT OF IN-SERVICE TOURISM TEACHER TRAINING PROGRAMS, by Babu P. George
Ability to participate and communicate in different social settings is considered to be very important qualities for tourism graduates. Tourism educators are supposed to inculcate these qualities in the students and one the finest means of training for which is to make the classroom sessions more interactive. Yet, educators, especially those who belong to the ‘old school' find it difficult to forego the teacher-dominant one-way lecture method. Thus, ‘ student-centered learning' and ‘teacher-as-facilitator' are some of the vital-most values that are aimed to be imparted through training programs for in-service academic staff in tourism. Resource persons who handle tourism teacher training program sessions believe that these objectives could best be achieved by rewarding with higher grades those participants who interact more during the sessions. The basic assumption behind this approach is that encouraging teacher-participants who interact more shall instill in them the spirit of the aforesaid values, which they shall later enact in their professional lives as tourism teachers. The present study conducted in India critically examines this assumption and establishes that rewarding teacher-participants for their interaction might in fact defeat the very same purpose for which the scheme was primarily introduced. The astonishing finding is that those teacher-participants who participate more during the sessions of the in-service training programs constitute the most ‘dictatorial' ones in their regular teaching roles along with their least participating colleagues. Those who participated moderately were noted to be the best tourism educators in terms of their facilitating student participation and encouraging student centered learning.
CURRY CUISINE: PERCEPTIONS OF INDIAN RESTAURANTS IN MALAYSIA, by Bharath M. Josiam, Sadiq M. Sohail & Prema A. Monteiro
Malaysia is an Asian country with a multi-ethnic population that includes native Malays, and people of Chinese and Indian ethnicity. Malaysia has identified tourism as a priority sector and is aggressively promoting the country. Consequently, restaurants in Malaysia operate with an increasingly more ethnically diverse customer base. Ethnic restaurants and differential perceptions of customers of varying ethnic backgrounds have not been studied in detail. This study examines the perceptions of South Asians, Caucasians, East Asians, and those of other ethnic origins in their perceptions of Indian restaurants in Malaysia . The findings suggest that there are universal likes/dislikes as well as differential perceptions between ethnic groups. Implications for restaurant operators and researchers are suggested.
COST ACCOUNTING IN GREEK HOTEL ENTERPRISES: AN EMPIRICAL APPROACH, by Odysseas Pavlatos & Ioannis Paggios
The purpose of this paper is to provide insights of the Greek Hotel Industry practices in the field of Cost Accounting. To this end, a survey was conducted with 85 firms of the Greek hotel sector with the use of questionnaires. Results show that hotel enterprises have a high fixed cost structure and also face a high proportion of indirect costs. The gathered data led us to the conclusion that the majority of the hotels use traditional cost accounting systems. Nevertheless, the adoption rate of an activity based costing (ABC) system is considered rather satisfactory considering the rates that come from surveys conducted in hotel enterprises in other countries. According to the statistical analysis, the factors that mostly affect the managerial decision of hotels in favour of an ABC system include their cost structure and the cost calculation per customers' categories.
CULTURAL TOURISM IN A GREEK INSULAR COMMUNITY: THE RESIDENTS' PERSPECTIVE, by Despina Sdrali & Katerina Chazapi
Cultural tourism constitutes an alternative strategy of sustainable local development for improving quality of life. The main objective of this type of tourism is to transform the regions, which are characterized by cultural resources, into ideal places for vacation, residence or business. In this study the residents' perceptions of cultural tourism were examined in a case study of a Greek island, Andros . It was found that the majority of the respondents were aware of the importance of cultural tourism and they argued that it could contribute t o the island's local development . The findings also suggested that there is a strong relationship between the respondents' characteristics and their perceptions of the impacts of cultural tourism on the island's development.
EXPLORING KNOWLEDGE AND SKILLS FOR TOURIST GUIDES: EVIDENCE FROM EGYPT, by Omneya Khairy El-SharkawyTourist Guides, like all employees within the travel (Tourism) industry must be aware of the needs of travelers (Tourists) and adjust their service and products accordingly, to accomplish this goal TGs are expected to process knowledge of guiding. This paper measures the degree of the influence of the area of study and the level of knowledge on experienced TGs through a study conducted on 200 of 6846 the working population of TGs in 2005, licensed to work in the field by the Ministry of Tourism in Egypt. The study used a self-administered questionnaire that revealed important results showing defects in the areas of study and shortage in the knowledge background of the TGs to a certain extend. The conclusion of the study will propose a guiding scheme to develop a certain standard of education and knowledge needed by TGs in Egypt in their drive towards professional recognition, in order to be able to perform effectively in an increasingly competitive field.
TOURISM & THE CITY: OPPORTUNITY FOR REGENERATION, by Rossana Galdini
Urban tourism is in full expansion due to world-wide urbanisation and internationalisation of our societies. New economic impulse created by investments in urban regeneration, and improving the quality of life, produces different consequences. This paper tries to examine the benefits and costs which tourism has on host environments, economies and societies and analyses the strategic conditions which can assist cities to revitalise their territory, through a coherent tourism policy. An Italian case study, Genoa is used to illustrate some of these impact issues. Genoa, after a deep crisis, has regained a new identity and its role in the Italian economic and social system. The paper provides a critical approach of how places of cultural significance are transformed into places of consumption by investigating the relationship between culture as a resource for identity and culture as an economic resource.
TOURISM, VILLAGE SPACE AND THE RE-APPROPRIATION OF RURAL: TOWARDS A NEW SOCIAL ORGANISATION OF THE COUNTRYSIDE, by Eleni-Christina SotiropoulouModern countryside is increasingly becoming a place ‘utilised' by city dwellers, a phenomenon particularly observable in Greece, where distances are relatively small and relations between villages and cities remain strong. The case of two Greek villages, where tourism has played a leading part in their social and economic recovery, will help us understand, through a conflict analysis, the way in which different expectations and aspirations expressed by various groups of local actors, concerning the use of rural space, determine the development and social organisation of rural areas.
THE EFFECTS ON ENVIRONMENTAL INVESTMENT OF CHANGES IN TOURISM DEMAND, by Elvio Accinelli, Juan Gabriel Brida, Edgar J.S. Carrera & Juan S. Pereyra
In this short paper we analyze the impact of tourist demand in hotel rooms on the investment of hotels on environmental quality. In particular we show that when income of the tourists increases, then in order to maintain the demand for rooms, the hotels must increase the investment on the environmental quality of the region where there is an increment of the tourist activity. In the particular case where we have three different hotel chains located in three different tourist regions, we show that the incentive of hotel chains to invest in environmental quality depends on the demand for days of rest on the part of tourists and on the level of aggregate income. We also show that if total income increase then the incentive to invest in environmental quality increases in the region where the price of an hotel room is lower.
ENVIRONMENTALISM AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT FROM THE POINT VIEW OF TOURISM, by Zoltan Baros & Lorant Denes David
As a consequence of the rapid growth of the tourism sector, special emphasis is placed on destinations and tourism products connected to or based on certain physical and environmental factors. However, the negative environmental consequences of tourism are, in many cases, overemphasised to the social and/or economic elements of sustainable development. Thus, it is important to find an adequate balance of the elements mentioned above within tourism development in order to achieve an optimal way of fulfilling all requirements of sustainable development . In order to this, a potential method is introduced by applying the Sustainability Value Map, developed originally for buildings and urban development projects, to the evaluation of sustainable tourism products. This method implies further questions arisen concerning the selection of the right set of indicators and the importance of local or regional issues. Using it as a tool, it may promote the process of holistic tourism planning and development.
2007 International CHRIE (Council on Hotel, Restaurant & Institutional Education) Conference, Dallas, Texas, USA, 25-29 July 2007. Report by Panagiotis Kassianidis
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