TOURISMOS: An International Multidisciplinary Refereed Journal of Tourism


 

ISSN: 1790-8418 (print)
ISSN: 1792-6521 (online)

 

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Volume 11, Number 4, 2016

Creative Commons: BY-NC-ND

To download Volume 11, Number 4 in PDF form please click here (the file is approximately 2 MB and it opens in a new window).

 

Research Papers:

 

A BRAND EXPERIENCES’ CONCEPTUAL MODEL FOR VISITORS’ ATTITUDINAL LOYALTY

Androniki Kavoura & Aikaterini Stavrianea 

The paper examines the antecedents of visitors’ attitudinal loyalty to a place, introducing the concepts of brand experiences and place identity that have not been conceptualized in the tourism context.The available literature on place identity, brand experiences, satisfaction and loyalty was reviewed, leading to this conceptual model.The paper discusses the use of brand experiences and place identity in the tourism sector in order to further enhance the knowledge of visitors’ loyalty. This is an area, relatively understudied and not fully developedin the tourism sector.Brand experiences and place identity can be significant elements in explaining attitudinal loyalty in the tourism sector. The examination of their role can lead to important implications for marketers of a company or an organization, since it can provide a better understanding of the visitor’s consumer behavior.
This paper presents a conceptual model of visitors’ loyalty incorporating place identity, place brand experiences and satisfaction as antecedents of loyalty, further enhancing our knowledge of visitors' loyalty. To date, no studies in the tourism context have attempted to conceptualize such a model.

 

PLACE BRANDING PROCESS: ANALYSIS OF POPULATION AS CONSUMERS OF DESTINATION IMAGE           

Marta Plumed, Tatiana Iñiguez Berrozpe & Carmen Elboj Saso      

In tourist marketing and branding strategies considering residents’ perceptionsis essential as promotional actions must convey an image that adequately represents the place and its inhabitants. This research considers that a destination brand cannot be successful if the residents’ perspective is not taken into account. Thanks to a quantitative study of the case of Zaragoza (Spain), a model of research is presented to analyse the residents’ brand attitude, perception of usefulness, and perceived image. The results confirm that the inhabitants’ attitude is the main variable to get a good destination image through a place branding strategy, which will depend on the brand’sperceived usefulness.
Thus, the present paper verifies the importance of considering residents’ perspective in destination image managementdue to they are both the first producers and consumers of their own place image.

 

THE SENSORY DIMENSION OF CONSUMER EXPERIENCES IN RURAL TOURIST DESTINATIONS    

Dora Agapito, Júlio Mendes, Patrícia Pinto & Hugo de Almeida 

Despite being well documented that the so-called five senses impact consumerbehavior, research following a holistic approach to all modalities of sensory experiences in rural tourist destinations is still scarce. Nevertheless, rural areas are characterized by a rich and diverse collection of endogenous resources, ideal for conceptualizing unique multi-sensory tourist experiences involving and benefiting all destination stakeholders. Hence, this paper proposes a theoretical framework based on the idea that the process of analyzing sensory aspects of consumer experiences as perceived by tourists while experiencing the countryside may contribute to carefully marketing sensory-themed tourist experiences in rural destinations.

Accordingly, considering that rural destinations are calling both for cooperative and creative offerings and communication strategies, this paper discusses the potential of using sensory-informed themes in profiling tourists, a process that assists rural destinations in the planning of the integral tourist experiences aiming at the optimal use of local resources.

 

LESBIANS AS TOURISTS: A QUALITATIVE STUDY OF TOURIST MOTIVATIONS IN MEXICO

Carlos Monterrubio & Mercy D. Barrios

This paper is an exploratory research of the tourist motivations of lesbians in a context different from those previously studied. Evidence from Western countries suggests that sexuality plays a quite important role in tourism by homosexuals, at least for gay men. By recognising that males and females experience tourism differently, this study aims to contribute to an expanded and more specific understanding of lesbians as tourists in the context of Mexico. Based on qualitative interviews – unlike previous findings based on empirical evidence – this study suggests that sexuality is not as important for determining lesbians’ tourism experiences as has been commonly argued. In this study, other aspects, particularly cultural experiences, seem to dominate in lesbians’ tourism motivations. While this study does not, by any means, discard the importance of sexuality in lesbian tourism motivations, it does postulate that other factors are as important as sexuality in shaping the tourism experiences of lesbians, at least in a non-Western context.

 

THE CLASSIFICATION OF INTERNATIONAL TOURISTS BASED ON CULTURAL ACTIVITIES-BASED SEGMENTATION: THE CASE OF PENANG, MALAYSIA

ShidaIrwana Omar, Gelareh Abooali & Badaruddin Mohamed

This study evaluates the perceptions of cultural tourists regarding the importance and performance of Penang’s attributes. Both activities-based analysis and importance-performance analysis were used. The former was applied to identify cultural tourists from all international tourists to Penang; whereas the latter evaluated their perceptions concerning Penang’s attributes.
The findings reveal that Penang’s cultural tourists primarily perceive the image of Penang according to its World Heritage Site status.
Additionally, Penang’s cultural and historical uniqueness were the second most important attributes, having satisfactory performance, ranking just after the island’s image.
A discussion of the results and suggestions for further studies are presented.

 

VISITOR’S SATISFACTION MEASUREMENT IN ANIMAL PARKS: THE CASE OF PARC SAFARI IN QUÉBEC, CANADA

Mohamed Reda KHOMSI & Dominic Lapointe  

The measurement of visitor satisfaction of a zoological park, where wildlife is free and not in captivity, is an issue that receives growing interest in recent decades. The postmodern lifestyle we adopt causes this type of park to beconsidered as a last stand against the urbanization of the area. Through this study, we attempted to measure visitor satisfaction of a zoological park located in Quebec that provides a circuit where visitors can get direct contact with wildlife in its natural environment.
The results of the study demonstrated the importance of the proximity to the animals in the assessment of visitor satisfaction. However, the price remains the main explanatory component of satisfaction, followed by the overall appearance and parkcleanliness.


AN EMPIRICAL STUDY OF CONFERENCE ATTENDEES’ POST-PARTICIPATION BEHAVIOUR 

Anahita Malek

With a specific focus on the conference segment of the MICE industry, this study extends the growing body of knowledge by testing a modified version of approach adapted fromSevert et al. (2007) toa new classification of conference type (international and academic).A structured questionnaire was used to collect data from 497 international conference attendees. The results of the multiple regression analysis showed that performance and satisfaction, respectively, have a direct positive significant relationship onpost-participation intentions of international conference attendees. The mediating effect of satisfaction isalso supported. The results of this study can be considered as an important tool for conference organizers,universities and associations to attract future international academic attendees and improve the overall quality of their academic events.

 

WAITING TIMES AT THEME PARKS: HOW MANAGERS INTERPRET WAITING 

      Gilda Hernandez-Maskivker, Gerard Ryan & Maria del Mar Pàmies


 This paper explores how managers of theme parks interpret waiting times from a services marketing perspective. In-depth interviews are undertaken in order to uncover manager’s perceptions of waiting.
‘The inevitability of waiting times’, ‘the negative interpretation of waiting times’ and ‘neutral waiting times’ are three themes that emerge from this qualitative study.
 A deeper analysis of the waiting experience may contribute to enhanced strategies for managing waiting in theme parks, improved evaluations of the service and increased customer satisfaction. Finally, some practical tips for practitioners are proposed in the form of management takeaways.

 

INCENTIVE PROGRAMS: CONSUMER-DRIVEN SOLUTIONS IN SUSTAINABLE TOURISM 

      Erin Harris & Carol Kline

 Incentive programs are a common tool used by businesses and other organizations to encourage specific behavior in customers and employees. This research note provides detailed information on how incentive programs may be an effective tool for encouraging sustainable travel-related purchases. A discussion outlining the existing research on green consumerism and consumer-driven solutions for encouraging sustainability is followed by industry and academic information on incentive programs. A focus group study then builds on this existing knowledge by looking at young professionals from Raleigh and Greenville, North Carolina to determine the effectiveness of incentive programs at encouraging green consumerism while traveling. Analysis of the resulting dialogue confirmed incentive programs may be an effective tool for encouraging sustainable travel-related purchases. Based on this result, recommendations provide design and logistical considerations that are important to take into account when trying to create an effective incentive program for sustainable tourism marketed to young professionals.

 


 

 

 

 

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