TOURISMOS: An International Multidisciplinary Refereed Journal of Tourism
Volume 11, Number 3, 2016
Creative Commons: BY-NC-ND
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GAY AND LESBIAN TOURISM – IN SEARCH OF GAY SPACE?
The paper explores existing published work related to gay and lesbian tourism motivations. Following, the findings of a small-scale quantitative study regardingthe profile of the Greek gay and lesbian tourists and their motivations when choosing a holiday destination and accommodationare presented. The paper concludes that lesbians are less prone to travel to well-known gay destinations compared to gays and that both avoid homophobic destinations. In terms of accommodation and destination choice, sexuality is not the most decisive factor, although it plays a more important role for gays. Revealing the motivations of the gay and lesbian niche market can help develop an effective marketing strategy
APPROACHING COMPETITIVE STRATEGIES AND HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT PRACTICES IN CITY HOTELS
Miltiadis Floras & Dr. Theodoros A. Stavrinoudis
In this paper the implementation of Human Resources Management (HRM) practices related to hospitality selection, staffing and job design is to be explored according to the hotels’ business strategy categorization. The HRM practices are also tested for any positive effects on specific performance variables. Schuler’s and Jackson’s (1987) typology was used to capture the strategic groups (Othman and Ismail, 1996; Wei, 2006; Liao, 2005; Kelliher and Perret, 2001) in the hospitality sector (Tavitiyaman et al., 2012; Alleyne et al., 2006; Hogue, 2000). HRM practices were adopted by Kim Hogue’s (2000) research in Great Britain’s hospitality and tertiary sector, while the selection of variables measuring the hotels’ performance was based on relevant scientific literature (Tzafrir, 2006; Liao, 2005; Tseng and Lee, 2009; Azmi, 2010; Stavrou et al., 2007; Wang and Syu, 2008). The survey’s outcomes highlight the need of hotels’ to focus on the proper selection and staffing systems-procedures. The differentiations among the strategic groups, according to the implementation of HRM practices, are pointed out and discussed.
AN EXPLORATORY ANALYSIS OF PUBLIC CONSULTATION IN TOURISTIC ISLANDS: THE ROLE OF GREEN TRANSPORT
Andreas Papatheodorou, John A. Paravantis & Amalia Polydoropoulou
Tourism is a global high consumption industry with important sustainability implications. Given the strong link between tourism and transport, this research analyses the opinion of local authorities and stakeholders to help promote sustainable transport in the touristic islands of Chios and Lesvos, in the Aegean Sea, in Greece. The attitudes of stakeholders towards the current state of tourism, future targets of the tourism industry and ways that green transport may assist the local tourism industry achieve these targets, were analyzed. A total of 82 completed questionnaires were collected from public consultations in Chios and Lesvos. Tourism seasonality, an emphasis on sun and sea, the small size of tourist enterprises and pressure from tour operators were seen as problems of the existing situation of the tourist industry. Stakeholders considered the independent operation of local institutions, a reduction of the emphasis on sun and sea tourism as well as an increase in the size of enterprises, important future targets for the tourist industry. Finally, it was established that stakeholders thought that green transport may prove to be particularly helpful with an increase in the size of tourist enterprises, legalization of more unlicensed establishments and less emphasis on sun and sea tourism.
AN EXPLORATORY STUDY: ANALYSIS OF SERBIAN TOURISM MARKET AND IDENTIFICATION OF MAJOR MARKET SEGMENTS
The study is a contribution towards identifying major tourism market segments in Serbia. An overview of market shares is presented through descriptive statistics, together with analysis of variance tests performed in SPSS with a goal to differentiate groups of tourists both on the supply and demand side of the market. Analysis of variance post-hoc Tukey test was used to identify major market segments, using following six variables: daily spending, age, length of stay, core motive, region of origin, destination. The study should serve as the basis for gaining deeper understanding of the Serbian tourist market as well as identification of the best market segmentation approach (common-sense, data driven, activities-interests-opinions, etc.). The study identified that the two major so-called common sense market segmentation variables (age and country of origin) should not be used together, as tourists coming from different regions show no statistically significant difference in terms of age. However, pairs of variables, such as daily spending-country of origin, as well as length of stay-country of origin showed much potential as important pairs of variables in conducting destination market segmentation in Serbia.
LAND USE POLICY AND TOURISM: THE CASE OF GREECE
Evangelia Simantiraki & Irini Dimou
this study the authors examine the public tourism education system
provided at the tertiary level in Greece by: (a) the Technological
Educational Institutes (TEIs) supervised by the Ministry of Education
and (b) the Advanced Schools of Tourism Education (ASTEs) supervised by
the Ministry of Tourism. The aim of the study is to examine whether
tourism education graduates are well-qualified, and the extent to which
the hospitality industry recruits tourism higher education graduates.
For this purpose, a primary research focused on the upscale hotel
enterprises in Crete was carried out. The managers of 60 hotels were
contacted and were asked to fill a questionnaire that was sent to them
by email. Among the issues surveyed were the extent to which these
hotels are staffed by higher education tourism graduates and whether
the graduates’ education meets the industry’s needs. In
addition, the participants were asked to evaluate the industrial
placement which is incorporated in all tertiary-level programs of
study. The results of the research indicate that, although tertiary
education graduates are considered to be well qualified, they lack
certain ‘soft skills’ which are considered to be very
important in this sector.
UNDERGRADUATE TOURISM EDUCATION IN GREECE: GRADUATES’ EMPLOYMENT IN THE HOSPITALITY INDUSTRY
Evangelia Simantiraki & Irini Dimou
In this study the authors examine the public tourism education system provided at the tertiary level in Greece by: (a) the Technological Educational Institutes (TEIs) supervised by the Ministry of Education and (b) the Advanced Schools of Tourism Education (ASTEs) supervised by the Ministry of Tourism. The aim of the study is to examine whether tourism education graduates are well-qualified, and the extent to which the hospitality industry recruits tourism higher education graduates. For this purpose, a primary research focused on the upscale hotel enterprises in Crete was carried out. The managers of 60 hotels were contacted and were asked to fill a questionnaire that was sent to them by email.
participants were asked to evaluate the industrial placement which is incorporated in all tertiary-level programs of study. The results of the research indicate that, although tertiary education graduates are considered to be well qualified, they lack certain ‘soft skills’ which are considered to be very important in
Moreover, the study reveals that only a minor percentage of hospitality employees (24%) are tourism graduates, an issue that requires further examination. Finally, it is suggested that education providers develop a close and effective cooperation with the tourism bodies, in order to keep track with the new developments in the tourism business, and update the academic curricula constantly to fit the industry’s needs.
BASIC QUESTIONS OF ECOTOURISM IN GREECE: DEMAND AND SUPPLY, MANAGEMENT BODIES, ENTERPRISES
Sofia Avgerinou–Kolonias, Anastasia Toufengopoulou & Ioannis Spyropoulos
The review and assessment of the ecotourism-related literature reveals confusion as regards the definition of ecotourism, its basic features, its activities and the principles governing it. The absence of a definition generally acceptable by the academic community, those shaping and those exercising politics and, in general, all parties involved in the tourist system, has led to the absence of reliable data about the current size of the sector. This paper is not aimed at providing another answer to the question "what ecotourism is?" or "which activities does it comprise?", but at demonstrating the multifaceted character of the phenomenon and highlighting the various aspects each approach focuses on, with a view to exploring, afterwards, its development prospects, focused on the data of the Greek reality. In this context, the methodological approach applied consists in the following steps: i) Secondary research of the literature on the theoretical framework, ii) Primary research concerning the characteristics of ecotourism in Greece: the features of ecotourist demand and supply, the features of ecotourism organisation and management and, last but not least, the bodies and enterprises involved in the ecotourist development process, iii) Synthetic analysis and assessment of the literature and the field study. The conclusions aspire to lead to answers about the factors that are critical for the development and organization of ecotourism in Greece.
SOCIAL MEDIA AS A MARKETING TOOL FOR GREEK DESTINATIONS
Emmanouil Perakakis, Nikolaos Trihas, Marinos Venitourakis, George Mastorakis & Ioannis Kopanakis
Destination Marketing Organizations (DMOs) have to redefine their marketing strategies, in order to meet current challenges in tourism, such as the emergence of new tourism destinations, the intense competition, the change in the motivations and preferences of tourists, as well as the global economic crisis. On the other hand, social media are gaining prominence, as a cost effective marketing tool with high returns. In this respect, the aim of this paper is to investigate the use of social media among 325 municipalities in Greece for destination marketing purposes. The results show that Greek municipalities just begin to recognize the added value of this new marketing trend, since social media exploitation is still very limited and largely experimental. Subsequently, the social media strategy of the Greek Municipality of Ierapetra – ‘Visit Ierapetra’ – is analyzed and presented. In the analysis, social media usage patterns were identified that could serve as good practices for other municipalities in Greece, at a time when public sector cuts in their funding are requiring them to seek greater value in the way marketing budgets are spent. Findings and discussion of this study are useful to industry practitioners and academic researchers interested in the use of social media in destination marketing.
FACTORS AFFECTING AN ISLAND’S IMAGE AS PERCEIVED BY TOURISM DEMAND AND SUPPLY
Ioanna Tsoka, Vasilis Angelis& Katerina Dimaki
development and competitiveness of a tourism destination is subject to
its ability to attract tourists – willing to visit the place -
and tour operators – willing to promote the destination. This
ability depends on a number of factors affecting the image of the
destination. A literature review reveals that most of the studies
referring to tourism destinations focus on the factors attracting
tourists, i.e. the demand side and very few on the factors attracting
the supply side.
WELLNESS TOURISM: INTEGRATING SPECIAL INTEREST TOURISM WITHIN THE GREEK TOURISM MARKET
Magdalini Vasileiou, Paris Tsartas & Marianthi Stogiannidou
Tourism industry in the past two decades is increasingly subsuming the identity of an experience industry. Within the framework of the global crisis, Greece seeks for a way of rejuvenating, differentiating and upgrading in quality a “tired” tourism product within a broader framework of an enriched tourism product in terms of special interest tourism development- either as a core product or as a complementary product to the mass tourism model. In particular, wellness tourism in Greece, following the tradition of the past - which related to the traditional spa- towns-presents a dynamic revival and claims its position in the global tourism market. This paper examines the typology and potentials created through investing in special interest tourism and in particular in the dynamics of Wellness Tourism development in Greece. It examines the main characteristics and typology of a major part of the supply side of the wellness tourism market in Greece. It tries to identify the possible relation of wellness tourism to other special interest tourism types that could support the development of a complex of special interest tourism activities. It aspires to identify the consumer behaviour / motives of the tourists visiting wellness hotels in Greece in order to relate them with the need to invest in rising markets and new ways of wellness tourism marketing management and finally, presents some of the most important problems the Greek wellness tourism market encounters that must be addressed in order to escape form the crisis vortex.
GASTRONOMY, TOURIST EXPERIENCE AND LOCATION. THE CASE OF THE ‘GREEK BREAKFAST’
Anna Kyriakaki, Smaragda Zagkotsi & Nikolaos Trihas
in previous decades gastronomy was not considered as an element that
could attract tourists, nowadays it is being identified as a ‘peak
touristic’ experience. It acts as a ‘pull’ factor and can create
‘loyal’ visitors, thus gastronomy has been used as a core marketing
element in different destinations. Gastronomy tourism offers
opportunities for communities to integrate tourism and local food
systems in order to promote economic development and respond to the
specific needs of visitors. It can also be viewed as a source of
sustainable tourism which supports local producers and boosts local
economies. The ‘Greek Breakfast’ project is an initiative of the
Hellenic Chamber of Hotels, which focuses on the Greek culinary
tradition and aims to promote the wealth and authenticity of local
agricultural products and gastronomy by uniting hoteliers and local
producers. This article aims to investigate the contribution of the use
of local agricultural products in tourism as a way to strengthen the
tourism sector, enrich tourist experience and promote both the local
producers and the cultural tradition of a place. The results of the
primary research into the effectiveness of the ‘Greek Breakfast’ in
hotels reveal: a) the strong relationship between agricultural and
tourism sector, b) the multiple influences of the use of local products
on strengthening (cultural and economic) of local communities, and c)
local gastronomy’s contribution to the enrichment of tourist experience.
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