TOURISMOS: An International Multidisciplinary Refereed Journal of Tourism
Volume 10, Number 2, 2015
Creative Commons: BY-NC-ND
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OVERVIEW AND ANALYSIS OF SUMMER SEASON TOURIST MARKET IN SERBIA
The study is a contribution towards designing tourism marketing strategy based on hard data. Statistical tests were performed in SPSS with a goal to differentiate groups of tourists both on the supply and demand side of the market, in order to gain deeper understanding of the Serbian tourist market. The study results and recommendations should be used as a contribution towards designing national and regional destination marketing strategies. The Serbian tourism market is very rich in small niches on both supply and demand side of the market. This study attempted to demonstrate the important differences these groups of tourists do exhibit in terms of key behavioral traits. Tourism policy should address the identified groups of tourists with specially designed marketing and communication strategies, appropriate to the tourist’s needs and attitudes.
TOURIST MOTIVATION IN HIGHLAND DESTINATION: CASE STUDEY IN PENANG HILL, MALAYSIA
Najihah bte Azmi & Azizan bin Marzuki
This research was conducted to investigate the factors that motivate tourist to visit highland destination as well as to study the relationship between socio-demographic factor and travelling characteristics found in the tourist motivations to visit highland destinations. The accomplishment of this research was achieved through the accumulation of empirical data at Penang Hill, Malaysia using complete set of questionnaires. By using the principal component analysis, this study has identified three push and pull factors. The three push factors are "escape factor "; “to rest and build closer bond factor; "prestige and safety factor". The pull factors that can be identified are “the beauty of nature factors”;"infrastructure of the city and George Town factor" and "management and safety factor". Furthermore, the results of multiple regression analysis performed show that the manipulated variables (socio-demographic and travel characteristics) have influenced the tourist motivation in highland destinations.
ENVIRONMENTAL AWARENESS OF TOURISTS: A FACT OR A MYTH?
Patricia Oom do Valle, Manuela Guerreiro & Julio Mendes
The Algarve is a mature destination in the south of Portugal and is mainly well-known for its offerings of sun and sea. Aside from its problem of strong seasonal changes, the region also faces strong competition from other nearby destinations that has impacted its need to better attract tourists. As regional stakeholders have recognized the necessity to diversify the tourist experience, a strong effort has been dedicated to the development of complementary tourist products, with special attention on eco-tourism. Within this context, the present study used data from a survey of tourists who visited the Algarve during December 2010 (low season). An analysis was done to determine the extent to which tourists visiting the region would actively search for nature-relative activities and the profile of these individuals. In particular, the study aimed to understand whether these tourists share environmentally friendly values or, instead, are typical tourists who have chosen the Algarve based on its traditional attributes of appealing climatic conditions and beaches. Depending on whether nature-based tourism in the Algarve is a fact or a myth, strategies for repositioning the destination must be adapted, new tourist products must be proposed and communication campaigns need to be rethought.
THE EFFICACY OF ALTERNATIVE TOURISM DEVELOPMENT TO OVERCOME CURRENT CRISIS: AN EXPLORATION OF THE VIEWS OF THE STAKEHOLDERS OF THE PREFECTURE OF KORINTHIA
Athina N. Papageorgiou & Pericles N. Lytras
Our aim was to record the views of the stakeholders of the prefecture of Korinthia on the alternative forms of tourism suitable to develop in this destination and capable to meet current crisis. We found that they all think that new alternative forms of tourism are definitely needed but they disagree on the specific form(s) that should be developed in the area. Considerable differentiation and ambiguity was also observed on various other issues, including infrastructure development, while no co-ordination exists. We conclude that a new vector (a participation of the various parties involved) is needed to accurately record the current situation, coordinate specific actions needed (meetings, congresses, participation in expeditions, education, etc.) and help developing a comprehensive master plan for local and regional tourism development.
THE SIGNIFICANCE OF HUMAN RESOURCES IN TOURISM MARKETING. IMPACTS ON THE EVALUATION OF THE TOURISM PRODUCT
Ourania Vitouladiti & Apostolos Dedousopoulos
Human resources in tourism, in the form of service personnel, are vital for the success of a business, operate as a critical factor for the creation of a destination’s image and affect its selection from potential visitors. Human resources and image are crucial issues in tourism and travel marketing. However, research connecting them is limited. Taking into consideration these points this paper tries to assess the tourism personnel’s images held by tourists, prior and after the visit, in an attempt to reveal deviations from their expectations concerning the personnel’s performance. The fact that there is limited evidence and research on the personnel as an element of the destination image renders the approach of the current study interesting and can offer suggestions for managerial and marketing actions.
AGRITOURISM MARKETING DISTRIBUTION STRATEGY AND TYPOLOGY INVESTIGATION. THE CASE OF ARCADIA
Vicky Katsoni & Panagiota Dionysopoulou
During last decades, agritourism started to grow significantly in Mediterranean area mostly due to its favourable climate. Within literature, there are many international studies that discuss the concept of agritourism in various ways. Wide-ranging definitions and labels concerning agritourism still create confusion as there is not a transparent and basic understanding of the characteristics that define it. This paper provides a comprehensive overview on behaviour patterns of agritourists by combining these patterns with the activity-based taxonomy of all definitions of agritourism into a structured framework. The research field of the case study is Arcadia, a prefecture in Peloponnese. The study contributes to the investigation of information sourcing behaviour in tourists’ travel decision process and offers a comprehensive framework that can be used as a basis for more informed debate and discussion, as well as for further empirical research in future.
EMOTIONAL LANGUAGE FOR IMAGE FORMATION AND MARKET SEGMENTATION IN DARK TOURISM DESTINATIONS: FINDINGS FROM TOUR OPERATORS’ WEBSITES PROMOTING GALLIPOLI
Effie Lagos, Alana Harris & Marianna Sigala
This study aims to understand the language patterns that are used on websites for influencing travelers to visit Gallipoli by analysing emotive language and categorising it according to different segmentations of Gallipoli visitors. Websites promoting Gallipoli were identified through Google. Wordle software was used for conducting a website content analysis. The results show that the language used in websites represents a commemorative experience. The findings suggest a good fit between the descriptive language used to represent the dark tourism destination attributes of Gallipoli and the emotive language used to motivate visitors to the site. Moreover, the imagery of thanatourism marketed online was categorised by emotive language to identify discreet market segments. However, as the emotive language used online can influence the visitors’ expectations, it is suggested that the former may result in visitor dissatisfaction.
Research Case Studies:
CONTRIBUTION TO THE RESEARCH OF TOURISM DEVELOPMENT OF ISTRIA (CROATIA) IN THE CONTEXT OF TECHNOLOGICAL ADVANCEMENT
Pavlo Ruzic & Damir Demonja
Technological advancement did not spare or steer clear of tourism. From the economic point of view, new techniques and procedures introduced within the field of tourism resulted in positive trends. However, when examined from the tourists point of view and their needs, the development effects remain controversial. The aim of this paper is to provide insight into the question of whether the effects of technological advancement on tourism can be considered beneficial or harmful, and to what degree. This paper also examines how technological advancement reflects on tourism, using the County of Istria (Croatia) as an example. It also outlines the situation in tourism in the past and in the present within this context.
TOURISM DESTINATION MANAGEMENT: AN OVERVIEW OF THE ADVANCES OF CATALONIA
Josep Boyra Amposta
This paper is dedicated to review Catalan public and private efforts to keep managing tourism advances to the benefit of Catalonia, and in particular its capital Barcelona, since the celebration of the Olympic Games in 1992. As the paper will progress its focus will turn on analyzing the abilities for learning and teaching advances, tackling how advances should be managed in order to keep their positive effects as long as possible in time, as they seem to be precisely at the basis of the success and position of Barcelona in the worldwide ranking as a top urban tourism destination.
ANALAYZING EFFECTIVE FACTORS OF TOURISM DEMAND IN IRANIAN JUNGLE PARKS: CASE STUDY OF TABRIZ ELGOLI JUNGLE PARK
Ali Bagherzadeh & Amineh Keshavarz
This study aimed to estimate tourism demand function of Tabriz Elgoli Park in Iran by travelling costs pattern in the frame of household production function, and then effective factors of the issue are investigated. The method of study is based on the estimation of tourism production functions, final cost of travelling, and calculating the shadow price of tourism. According to the results of the study, time, distance and travel costs effect on tourism and the final cost of tourism is calculated as 3368825.7 Rials per day. Findings show that there is a positive relationship between tourism with travelers’ income, quality of the park, educational level of visitors and a negative relationship with final cost (shadow price) of the tourism. The results of estimation model express that among all factors, the quality of park is the most effective factor in tourism demand. Therefore, any consideration of responsible people to the environmental quality of the park would increase tourist attraction, which leads to economical prosperity of the region.
CROSS-CULTURAL TRAINING AS CRITICAL FACTOR OF CULTURAL INTELLIGENCE IN THE HOSPITALITY INDUSTRY
This study analyses cultural awareness in the workplace. It is important for employees to be cultural aware because they may have to interact with people from other countries. Cultural Intelligence (CQ) examines individuals’ abilities to interact with people with different cultural backgrounds. Cross-cultural training is examined as a factor that may affect individuals’ CQ. Hospitality industry was chosen because of the diversity of employees, customers or owners. Because of the lack of research on this area, the paper contributes to the emerging need for cultural awareness in the workplace by examining cross-cultural training as a critical factor of CQ.
THE CAUSAL RELATIONSHIP WITH NEW VARIABLES IN TOURISM: EVIDENCE FROM TURKEY
In this study, the relationship between tourism revenues and variables like tourism index in Borsa Istanbul & tourism advertising duration which have not been used previously in the literature was investigated in Turkey. In order to determine the stationary levels of series, ADF (1979) and Zivot Andrews (1992) unit root tests were used in this study spanning the period Aug 2004 till Dec 2012. Tourism revenues and advertising durations have been found stationary at level, while tourism index was stationary at first difference. According to Toda-Yamamoto (1996) causality test there have been determined no causality between these three variables. However, there was observed one-way causality from tourism index to tourism advertisements by the aid of Hacker Hatemi-J (2010) causality test which can determine critical values by bootstrap simulation with the purpose of to reduce the possibility of potential non-normal dispersion of errors. By this new test more reliable and advanced results have been obtained. As a result, index which can be considered the fundamental performance scale of tourism sector has a vital effect on tourism advertisement.
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