TOURISMOS: An International Multidisciplinary Refereed Journal of Tourism
Volume 10, Number 1, 2015
Creative Commons: BY-NC-ND
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AN IMPORTANCE-PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF INTERNATIONAL VISITORS TO PENANG ISLAND, MALAYSIA
Shida Irwana Omar, Ala`a Nimer Abukhalifeh & Badaruddin Mohamed
This paper examines international visitors’ perceived importance and performance of 12 destination attributes of Penang Island using an Importance-Performance Analysis (IPA). The result was drawn from a questionnaire survey of 803 respondents who visited the island between August and November 2012. The importance-performance analysis grids illustrate that Penang Island performs well in six attributes namely 1) safety and security; 2) image of destination; 3) friendliness of the people; 4) variety of tourism attractions; 5) value for money; and 6) accessibility to the destination. The attribute of cultural and historical uniqueness appears to get too much concentration, and five attributes fell into the Low Priority quadrant. Safety and security was found to be the determining attribute for international visitors. Implications and recommendations for Penang managers and marketers were discussed.
APPRAISAL OF FAMILY-FRIENDLY TOURISM IN MALAYSIA
A.Habibah, J. Hamzah, A.C Er,, A.Buang & S. Selvadurai
Family tourism is a growing market even though it is understudied and unexplored in Malaysia. Given the rising purchasing power and quality of life among families, and little work has been done on exploring these family friendly policies and their implementations, this article aims to uncover to what extent that family-friendly policies are implemented in Malaysia. This article utilised a descriptive method with qualitative data from historical writings, tourism reports and research findings concerning the participation of family tourists. This study revealed that the policies and implementations of family tourism are of different level of concern among various stakeholders. At the national level, families are encouraged at both explicit and implicit initiatives, while at the tourism providers families characters are commoditised as tourism products. The changing demand of families received attentions from the tourism providers as well as from the governmental agencies. The setting up of a comprehensive guideline on family-friendly destination should stand as a competitive edge in promoting family tourism.
SATISFACTION FORMATION AND TYPOLOGY OF BAR CUSTOMERS
Angelos Pantouvakis & Christos Patsiouras
The main purposes of this study is to identify the service features that determine overall customer satisfaction in the entertainment industry and to suggest a satisfaction-based typology of bar customers depending on their loyalty status. The research questions were examined using a sample of 1,263 multinational bar customers in Greece. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis coupled with cluster analysis were used to examine the extent to which elements of satisfaction may be identified and combined with loyalty rankings to segment the bar market’s customers. The results showed support for both hypotheses and confirmed that interactive and physical elements are antecedents of customer satisfaction. Moreover, results found that bar customers may be segmented into four distinct groups (enthusiastic, apathetic, peripheral and kinetic). The bar managers may better address their customers’ requirements by choosing whether to invest in refurbishing the establishment or better train their personnel to maximise patron satisfaction and loyalty.
EVALUATING TOURIST SATISFACTION IN ACCORDANCE TO TOUR GUIDES PERFORMANCE: HERITAGE GUIDED TOURS IN EGYPT
Omneya Khairy El-sharkawy
Tourism is one of the top priorities for many countries, because of its contribution to economy in terms of foreign exchange earnings, creation of employment opportunities and promoting international understanding. Furthermore, Cultural heritage tourism has become an increasingly important factor for tourist destinations, and cultural tourist as the one who is interested in experiencing the culture of the destination spends money, time and other resources on a trip or visit to receive an experience that provides psychological benefits. Happy and satisfied customers are more likely to return and more likely to say positive things about the service they have experienced. If tour guiding service is a core component of heritage tour, then the tour guides (TGs) as being a frontline employee in the tourism industry play an important role in shaping tourist experience in a destination. This study evaluates the relationship between tour guide (TG) performance and tourist’s satisfaction in terms of psychological, spiritual and practical content during heritage guided tours in Egypt. A questionnaire was distributed among 200 tourists of different nationalities. Results derived from the respondents showed that (TG) performance affects tourist experience. For a satisfied tourist transmits his/her positive experience (word of mouth) to third persons as well as repeating his/her visit. Finally the study ends up by a set of recommendations for TGs to consistently emphasize a creative approach in order to maintain high standards of TG performance.
TRAINING OR VACATION? THE ACADEMIC CONFERENCE TOURISM
Cleopatra Veloutsou & Chrisovalantis Chreppas
The current study concentrates on factors affecting the intentions of academics attending an academic conference. It highlights the importance of academic conferences and academic conference tourism and discusses meetings, the convention industry and also their utility in the career development of academics. Through qualitative research and a review of the literature on conference tourism push and pull motivation factors are suggested. The power of these factors to predict the intention to attend an academic conference is examined through quantitative research and regression analysis. The results indicate that ‘pull’ factors are better predictors of the intention to attend an academic conference than motivational ‘push’ factors.
THE ENRICHMENT OF TOUR OPERATORS’ PRODUCT BY INCORPORATING SUSTAINABLE ELEMENTS. A TOURISM AND TRAVEL MARKETING APPROACH
The tour operators offering their services in established and traditional tourism destinations for a long time face the issue of the lack of sustainable elements in their holiday packages and their focus is mostly on the classic 3S model. However, either their target markets or the needs of destinations for sustainable approaches push for the enrichment of the offered packages. Therefore, this paper studies the potential for enrichment of classical tour packages by incorporating components of the destinations natural and cultural resources. To recognize these elements research has been conducted on the impressiveness of natural and cultural resources. The results indicate not only the potential for product enrichment with unused, till now, elements but also suggest the creation of new packages for targeted markets. Facts that are positive for both the tour operators and the prosperity of the destination.
PERCEIVED ORGANIZATIONAL TRUST AS AN ANTECEDENT OF ORGANIZATIONAL CITIZENSHIP BEHAVIOUR: FINDINGS FROM LODGING ENTERPRISES IN TURKEY
Ozgur Devrim Yilmaz
Two concepts that have just made their way into research on management of tourism enterprises are perceived organizational trust (POT) and organizational citizenship behaviour (OCB). Trust and citizenship behaviours of employees have become a central variable in regard to the well-being of organizations. Although the studies of these subjects have increased markedly in the past decade little effort has spotlighted on the relationship between POT and OCB from the point of tourism sector. Therefore in this study the relationship between POT and OCB is examined in Turkey with 412 participants. The analyses found support for 7 hypotheses, including support for a strong relationship between POT and OCB. Contrary to expectations, there were no significant differences between some dimensions of OCB and POT. By the help of findings it is expected to contribute to the theoretical studies in the field of tourism.
TOURISM MARKET RESEARCH IN SPANISH HIGHER EDUCATION: ETYMOLOGICAL ISSUES
Jesus Manuel Lopez-Bonilla & Luis Miguel Lopez-Bonilla
Tourism market research appears to have increased its academic presence with the introduction of the new university degree in Tourism in Spain. The term tourism market research is widely accepted. However, there is some controversy regarding the use of the terms of market research and commercial research. In some cases, conceptual differences are posed between the two terminologies, while in other cases, a greater equity is advocated. We try to understand the basis of these differences, concluding that the two terminologies have their own limitations, so it would be advisable to use a more appropriate and enlightening term.
Research Case Studies:
Public Perception on Promoting Sustainable Ecotourism at Gunung Reng Area, Jeli District, Kelantan, Malaysia
Nor Fadilah M.A., Menti Saysa H., Nur Amalina A.K., Amal Najihah M.N. & Dony Adriansyah N.
Gunung Reng area is one of interesting places in the state of Kelantan, Malaysia. It is located in Batu Melintang sub-district, along the East-West Expressway in Jeli district in the northwestern corner of Kelantan. Though the local people designated Gunung Reng as a ‘gunung’ (the Malay word for ‘mount’), it is not a mount in the true definition but it is actually a mogote hill towering above the flat alluvial topography. This study is to discuss the public perception on promoting sustainable ecotourism at this area. This study was carried out by distributing 30 questionnaires to different respondents which consist of local government staff, local communities and visitors (foreign and domestic) to see their perception on the attitude, awareness, and the way to conserve this ecotourism sites
ACHIEVING AUTHENTICITY THROUGH ETHNIC TOURISM, A CONSUMER PERSPECTIVE
Nashwa M. Talaat
Ethnic tourism is considered a unique type of tourism since it enables the tourist to experience and learn about other cultures through their traditions, customs lifestyle and practice. Authenticity is an important concept in ethnic tourism studies. This article examines tourists' participation in ethnic attractions and products, and the levels of satisfaction with their experiences based upon empirical research conducted in number of Nubian villages which still exist north of the Dam. Field research was done through visiting, interviewing some of the local people and observing their lifestyle. A survey of 600 visitors to Nubian villages was also conducted, only 560 questionnaires were valid to analysis out of which 89.2% was international and 10.8% was domestic. The study finds out that authenticity is a major concern among international tourists. Although it was the first experience for large number of tourists but they have different reasons for getting through this experience.
TOURISM VERSUS THE VISITOR ECONOMY AND THE SHIFTING LANDSCAPE OF DESTINATION MANAGEMENT
This paper attempts to explore the emerging concept of the visitor economy, by linking it to recent changes in tourism governance on a destination level, influenced by complex global and regional politico-economic factors. A regional outlook reflecting on England as an exemplar of a shifting destination management is introduced and provides the basis of investigation. Particular attention is given to the new model of destination management in England and its prospective role in realising the benefits of the emerging visitor economy. Secondary data sources in the form of destination management strategies and industry reports have been explored and informed the discussion of the two evolving concepts – destination management on a local level and the multifaceted visitor economy. Outcomes of the analysis suggest that further enquiry into the blurred visitor economy concept is imperative, particularly in times of organisational restructuring, changing destination management priorities and increased competition.
SECOND HOME TOURISM AND SUSTAINABLE RURAL DEVELOPMENT
S. Zahra Mirani & Banafsheh M. Farahani
Second home tourism is one of the patterns of tourism development especially in rural and mountainous areas that is obtained through ownership of second homes (bungalows or holiday homes). World's economic, social and cultural developments after the Second World War, with improving communication and transportation, increased leisure time. The possibility of allocating some part of revenue for unnecessary affaires caused the spread of rural tourism and consequently the popularity of second homes in the western world and many other countries. This paper introduced the second homes, their emergence and spread in all around the world, their geographical and spatial analysis and the importance of rural development, and then it investigated the role of second home tourism in rural development and their tourism development implications in all the environmental, economic, and social aspects. At last Sustainable development of rural tourism strategies was examined.
THE IMPACT OF SANCTIONS ON DESTINATION IMAGE TOURISM OF IRAN
Hamid Akbarnataj & Mohammad Mirtaghyian
In current situation where Iran is struggling to get through consecutive sanctions, developing tourism industry and attracting foreign tourist and also the use of the exchange rate and low values of Rial can be a viable solution strategy. Iran can be a cheap destination for countries with high currency value which can be a successful factor in attracting tourism from other countries. Placed among the first ten countries with cultural and natural attractions, distinct hospitality and delivering cheaper services compared to other destinations are the main factors which can be used in creating a destination brand for Iran. On this basis, relying on real advantage of its unique attractions is much better than creating artificial spaces and short-term booms. The present study investigated the brand image of tourism in Iran, before and after the sanctions. Data are gathered using 5-point Likert scale in a questionnaire and results in the analysis and conclusions are presented.
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